Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Under the right conditions, peptide blocks HIV infection at multiple points along the way

Date:
July 24, 2012
Source:
American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Summary:
Using model cell lines, researchers have shown that human neutrophil peptide 1 effectively prevented HIV entry into cells in multiple ways.

Human defensins, aptly named antimicrobial peptides, are made in immune system cells and epithelial cells (such as skin cells and cells that line the gut). One of these peptides, human neutrophil peptide 1, under certain circumstances hinders HIV infection, but exactly how it works remains unclear.

Related Articles


HIV entry into mature T-helper cells (cells essential to the immune system) proceeds by attachment of the virus to specific targets on T-helper cells, uptake of the virus, fusion of its envelope with the cell membranes, and release of the virus into the cells. In a forthcoming Journal of Biological Chemistry Paper of the Week, Gregory Melikyan at Emory University and colleagues investigated the ability of human neutrophil peptide 1 to impede each step of this process.

Using model cell lines, Melikyan's group showed that human neutrophil peptide 1 effectively prevented HIV entry into cells in multiple ways. First, human neutrophil peptide 1 reduced the number of specific targets on the cells available for HIV attachment. Second, this defensin also bound to specific targets on both the HIV envelope and the cells, preventing early and late stages of HIV-cell fusion. Finally, human neutrophil peptide 1 prevented HIV uptake into the cells without compromising the general ability of the cells to engulf other molecules.

While human neutrophil peptide 1 hinders HIV entry into cells under these lab conditions, it does not do so as effectively in the presence of serum -- meaning that it may not be as successful at blocking HIV in our bodies. But Melikyan's team showed that human neutrophil peptide 1 remained attached to its specific targets in the presence of serum, despite its reduced efficacy. Their work suggests that the structure of human neutrophil peptide 1 is important for its anti-HIV activity, and they propose that serum may interfere with the ability of this defensin to form complexes, reducing its ability to block HIV.

"Our work provides new insights into the ability of defensins to recognize and neutralize diverse pathogens, including HIV," Melikyan says. This research reveals that human neutrophil peptide 1 can bind various viral and cellular targets and that a previously unappreciated feature is essential for its anti-HIV activity, possibly its propensity to form large complexes, Melikyan explains.

The team's findings suggest a new avenue of research for combatting HIV and viruses that infiltrate cells in a similar manner.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. The original article was written by Danielle Gutierrez. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. L. H. Demirkhanyan, M. Marin, S. Padilla-Parra, C. Zhan, K. Miyauchi, M. Jean-Baptiste, G. Novitskiy, W. Lu, G. B. Melikyan. Multifaceted mechanisms of HIV-1 entry inhibition by human -defensin. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2012; DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M112.375949

Cite This Page:

American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. "Under the right conditions, peptide blocks HIV infection at multiple points along the way." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 24 July 2012. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/07/120724144526.htm>.
American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. (2012, July 24). Under the right conditions, peptide blocks HIV infection at multiple points along the way. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 30, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/07/120724144526.htm
American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. "Under the right conditions, peptide blocks HIV infection at multiple points along the way." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/07/120724144526.htm (accessed October 30, 2014).

Share This



More Health & Medicine News

Thursday, October 30, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Fauci Says Ebola Risk in US "essentially Zero"

Fauci Says Ebola Risk in US "essentially Zero"

AP (Oct. 30, 2014) NIAID Director Anthony Fauci said the risk of Ebola becoming an epidemic in the U.S. is essentially zero Thursday at the Washington Ideas Forum. He also said an Ebola vaccine will be tested in West Africa in the next few months. (Oct. 30) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Nurse Defies Ebola Quarantine With Bike Ride

Nurse Defies Ebola Quarantine With Bike Ride

AP (Oct. 30, 2014) A nurse who vowed to defy Maine's voluntary quarantine for health care workers who treated Ebola patients followed through on her promise Thursday, leaving her home for an hour-long bike ride. (Oct. 30) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Microsoft Launches Fitness Band After Accidental Reveal

Microsoft Launches Fitness Band After Accidental Reveal

Newsy (Oct. 30, 2014) Microsoft accidentally revealed its upcoming fitness band on Wednesday, so the company went ahead and announced it. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Studying Effects of Music on Dementia Patients

Studying Effects of Music on Dementia Patients

AP (Oct. 30, 2014) The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee is studying the popular Music and Memory program to see if music, which helps improve the mood of Alzheimer's patients, can also reduce the use of prescription drugs for those suffering from dementia. (Oct. 30) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins