Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Success of engineered tissue depends on where it's grown

Date:
August 14, 2012
Source:
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Summary:
Researchers have now shown that implanted cells' therapeutic properties depend on their shape, which is determined by the type of scaffold on which they are grown. The work could allow scientists to develop even more effective implants and also target many other diseases, including cancer.

Cells grown on different types of scaffolds vary in their ability to help repair damaged blood vessels. Tissue implants made of cells grown on a sponge-like scaffold have been shown in clinical trials to help heal arteries scarred by atherosclerosis and other vascular diseases. However, it has been unclear why some implants work better than others.

Related Articles


MIT researchers led by Elazer Edelman, the Thomas D. and Virginia W. Cabot Professor of Health Sciences and Technology, have now shown that implanted cells' therapeutic properties depend on their shape, which is determined by the type of scaffold on which they are grown. The work could allow scientists to develop even more effective implants and also target many other diseases, including cancer.

"The goal is to design a material that can engineer the cells to release whatever we think is most appropriate to fight a specific disease. Then we can implant the cells and use them as an incubator," says Laura Indolfi, a postdoc in Edelman's lab and lead author of a paper on the research recently published online in the journal Biomaterials.

Aaron Baker, a former postdoc in Edelman's lab and now an assistant professor at the University of Texas at Austin, is also an author of the paper.

Shape matters

For the past 20 years, Edelman has been working on using endothelial cells grown on scaffolds made of collagen as implantable devices to treat blood vessel damage. Endothelial cells line the blood vessels and regulate important process such as tissue repair and inflammation by releasing molecules such as chemokines, small proteins that carry messages between cells.

Several of the devices have been tested in clinical trials to treat blood vessel damage; in the new Biomaterials study, Edelman and Indolfi set out to determine what makes one such tissue scaffold more effective than another. In particular, they were interested in comparing endothelial cells grown on flat surfaces and those grown on more porous, three-dimensional scaffolds. The cells grown on 3-D structures tended to be more effective at repairing damage and suppressing inflammation.

The researchers found that cells grown on a flat surface take on a round shape in which the cells' structural components form a ring around the perimeter of the cell. However, when cells are grown on a scaffold with surfaces of contact whose dimensions are similar in size to the cells, they mold to the curved surfaces, assuming a more elongated shape. In those cells, the structural elements -- made of bundles of the protein actin -- run parallel to each other.

Those shapes determine what types of chemokines the cells secrete once implanted into the body. In this study, the researchers focused on a chemokine known as MCP1, which recruits inflammatory cells called monocytes.

They found that the architecture of the cytoskeleton appears to determine whether or not the cell turns on the inflammatory pathway that produces MCP1. The elongated cells grown on porous surfaces produced eight times less of this inflammatory chemokine than cells grown on a flat surface, and recruited five times fewer monocytes than cells grown on a flat surface. This helps the tissue implants to suppress inflammation in damaged blood vessels.

The researchers also identified biomarkers that correlate the cells' shape, chemokine secretion and behavior. One such parameter is the production of a focal adhesion protein, which helps cells to stick to surfaces. In cells grown on a flat surface, this adhesion protein, known as vinculin, accumulates around the edges of the cell. However, in cells grown on a 3-D surface, the protein is evenly distributed throughout the cell. These distribution patterns serve as molecular cues to inhibit or activate the pathway that recruits monocytes.

Precise control

The findings could help scientists manipulate their scaffolds to tailor cells to specific applications. One goal is using implanted cells to recruit other body cells that will do a particular task, such as inducing stem cells to differentiate into a certain type of cell. "By designing the matrix before we seed the cells, we can engineer which factors they are going to secrete," Indolfi says.

The work should also help researchers improve on existing tissue-engineered devices and test new ones, Edelman says. "Without this kind of understanding, we can't extend successful technologies to the next generation," he says.

The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health, the American Heart Association, and the David H. Koch Foundation.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The original article was written by Anne Trafton. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Laura Indolfi, Aaron B. Baker, Elazer R. Edelman. The role of scaffold microarchitecture in engineering endothelial cell immunomodulation. Biomaterials, 2012; 33 (29): 7019 DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2012.06.052

Cite This Page:

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. "Success of engineered tissue depends on where it's grown." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 14 August 2012. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/08/120814111001.htm>.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. (2012, August 14). Success of engineered tissue depends on where it's grown. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 30, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/08/120814111001.htm
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. "Success of engineered tissue depends on where it's grown." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/08/120814111001.htm (accessed October 30, 2014).

Share This



More Health & Medicine News

Thursday, October 30, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Mind-Controlled Prosthetic Arm Restores Amputee Dexterity

Mind-Controlled Prosthetic Arm Restores Amputee Dexterity

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Oct. 29, 2014) A Swedish amputee who became the first person to ever receive a brain controlled prosthetic arm is able to manipulate and handle delicate objects with an unprecedented level of dexterity. The device is connected directly to his bone, nerves and muscles, giving him the ability to control it with his thoughts. Matthew Stock reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Google To Use Nanoparticles, Wearables To Detect Disease

Google To Use Nanoparticles, Wearables To Detect Disease

Newsy (Oct. 29, 2014) Google X wants to improve modern medicine with nanoparticles and a wearable device. It's all an attempt to tackle disease detection and prevention. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Can Drinking Milk Lead To Early Death?

Can Drinking Milk Lead To Early Death?

Newsy (Oct. 29, 2014) Researchers in Sweden released a study showing heavy milk drinkers face an increased mortality risk from a variety of causes. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Obama: The US Will Not 'run and Hide' From Ebola

Obama: The US Will Not 'run and Hide' From Ebola

AP (Oct. 29, 2014) Surrounded by health care workers in the White House East Room, President Barack Obama said the U.S. will likely see additional Ebola cases in the weeks ahead. But he said the nation can't seal itself off in the fight against the disease. (Oct. 29) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins