Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Risk of pertussis increases as time since last dose of DTaP vaccine lengthens

Date:
November 27, 2012
Source:
JAMA and Archives Journals
Summary:
In an examination of cases of childhood pertussis in California, researchers found that children with pertussis had lower odds of having received all 5 doses of the diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) vaccine series.

In an examination of cases of childhood pertussis in California, researchers found that children with pertussis had lower odds of having received all 5 doses of the diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) vaccine series; however the odds increased as the time since last DTaP dose lengthened, which is consistent with a progressive decrease in estimated vaccine effectiveness each year after the final dose of DTaP vaccine, according to a study in the Nov. 28 issue of JAMA.

Related Articles


"Pertussis remains a poorly controlled vaccine-preventable disease in the United States, despite a well-established childhood vaccination program and high coverage. Although infants have substantially higher rates of pertussis compared with other age groups, data from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System reflect a recent increase in the number of reported pertussis cases among children aged 7 to 10 years," according to background information in the article. "Recent studies have demonstrated waning protection following the current 5-dose DTaP schedule, but no study, to our knowledge, has compared fully vaccinated with unvaccinated children to estimate the durability of protection afforded by the childhood series."

Lara K. Misegades, Ph.D., M.S., of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, and colleagues conducted a study to evaluate the association between pertussis and receipt of 5 DTaP doses by time since the fifth DTaP dose in 15 California counties. Cases (n = 682) were all suspected, probable, and confirmed pertussis cases among children ages 4 to 10 years reported from January through December 14, 2010; controls (n = 2,016) were children in the same age group who received care from the clinicians reporting the cases. Three controls were selected per case. Vaccination histories were obtained from medical records and immunization registries.

Cases were more likely than controls to be unvaccinated (7.8 percent vs. 0.9 percent), female and older (the median [midpoint] ages of cases and controls were 9 and 7 years, respectively). Compared with controls, children with pertussis had a 89 percent lower odds of having received all 5 doses of DTaP. When children were categorized by time since completion of the series, using an unvaccinated reference group, children with pertussis compared with controls were less likely to have received their fifth dose within the prior 12 months (19 [2.8 percent] vs. 354 [17.6 percent]; estimated vaccine effectiveness [VE], 98.1 percent). This association was evident with longer time since vaccination, with odds ratios increasing with time since the fifth dose. At 60 months or longer (range, 60-83 months; n = 231 cases [33.9 percent] and n = 288 controls [14.3 percent]), the estimated VE was 71.2 percent. The estimated relative decline in VE was 27.4 percent from less than 12 months to 60 months or longer since fifth DTaP dose. Accordingly, the estimated VE declined each year after receipt of the fifth dose of DTaP.

"The increasing incidence of pertussis, changing epidemiology, and demonstrated decline in the estimated DTaP VE over time have raised concerns about the current U.S. pertussis vaccine program and may prompt consideration of alternative schedules," the authors write. "Ultimately, improved control of pertussis may require a vaccine that provides longer duration of protection or differently affects transmission in the community."

Editorial: Acellular Vaccines and Resurgence of Pertussis

"Strategies to use the current vaccines to provide optimal benefit need to be implemented," writes Eugene D. Shapiro, M.D., of the Yale University School of Medicine and Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, New Haven, Conn., in an accompanying editorial.

"The most important consideration is to try to protect infants, who have the most morbidity and mortality from pertussis. The highest rates both of hospitalizations for and of deaths from pertussis occur in children younger than 2 months. Immunization of all pregnant women and of all household and day-care contacts (both adults and children) of children younger than 1 year is one important strategy that may help alleviate this problem. Public health authorities will need to assess the feasibility and safety of different schedules for administering currently available vaccines, including the possibility of shorter periods between primary and booster doses (more frequent administration of tetanus toxoid may be associated with more severe local adverse reactions)."


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by JAMA and Archives Journals. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal References:

  1. Misegades LK, Winter K, Harriman K, et al. Association of Childhood Pertussis With Receipt of 5 Doses of Pertussis Vaccine by Time Since Last Vaccine Dose, California, 2010. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 2012; 308 (20): 2126 DOI: 10.1001/jama.2012.14939
  2. Eugene D. Shapiro. Acellular Vaccines and Resurgence of Pertussis. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 2012; 308 (20): 2149 DOI: 10.1001/jama.2012.65031

Cite This Page:

JAMA and Archives Journals. "Risk of pertussis increases as time since last dose of DTaP vaccine lengthens." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 27 November 2012. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/11/121127190027.htm>.
JAMA and Archives Journals. (2012, November 27). Risk of pertussis increases as time since last dose of DTaP vaccine lengthens. ScienceDaily. Retrieved November 26, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/11/121127190027.htm
JAMA and Archives Journals. "Risk of pertussis increases as time since last dose of DTaP vaccine lengthens." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/11/121127190027.htm (accessed November 26, 2014).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Health & Medicine News

Wednesday, November 26, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

From Popcorn To Vending Snacks: FDA Ups Calorie Count Rules

From Popcorn To Vending Snacks: FDA Ups Calorie Count Rules

Newsy (Nov. 25, 2014) — The US FDA is announcing new calorie rules on Tuesday that will require everywhere from theaters to vending machines to include calorie counts. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Daily Serving Of Yogurt Could Reduce Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes

Daily Serving Of Yogurt Could Reduce Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes

Newsy (Nov. 25, 2014) — Need another reason to eat yogurt every day? Researchers now say it could reduce a person's risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Madagascar Working to Contain Plague Outbreak

Madagascar Working to Contain Plague Outbreak

AFP (Nov. 24, 2014) — Madagascar said Monday it is trying to contain an outbreak of plague -- similar to the Black Death that swept Medieval Europe -- that has killed 40 people and is spreading to the capital Antananarivo. Duration: 00:42 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Are Female Bosses More Likely To Be Depressed?

Are Female Bosses More Likely To Be Depressed?

Newsy (Nov. 24, 2014) — A new study links greater authority with increased depressive symptoms among women in the workplace. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories

 

Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins