Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Antidepressant could do double duty as diabetes drug, study shows

Date:
December 14, 2012
Source:
University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston
Summary:
Researchers have discovered that the commonly used antidepressant drug paroxetine could also become a therapy for the vascular complications of diabetes.

University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston researchers have discovered that the commonly used antidepressant drug paroxetine could also become a therapy for the vascular complications of diabetes.

The scientists made their discovery after screening 6,766 clinically used drugs and pharmacologically active substances.

"We developed this assay and used it to test literally every single existing drug and a good selection of other biologically active compounds," said UTMB professor Csaba Szabo, senior author of a paper on the research published online by Diabetes. "We were quite surprised when paroxetine came out as an active compound -- a result, we later determined, of what seems to be a completely new effect unrelated to its antidepressant actions and not shared by any other known antidepressant drug."

The initial screening process tested the ability of different compounds to protect the cells that make up the inner linings of blood vessels from the destructive effects of the high sugar levels produced by diabetes, known as hyperglycemia. In people with diabetes, hyperglycemia causes these endothelial cells to generate toxic molecules known as reactive oxygen species (ROS), which ravage blood-vessel linings and lead to diabetic endothelial dysfunction, the key factor in such destructive diabetic complications as heart attacks, strokes, retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy.

In subsequent test-tube studies, researchers found that paroxetine -- which is sold as an antidepressant under the trade name "Paxil" -- prevents hyperglycemia-initiated ROS damage to endothelial cells in two ways. First, it directly reduces concentrations of superoxide, a powerful ROS. Second, it suppresses superoxide production by mitochondria, tiny structures whose real job is making the energy-transfer molecules needed for most cellular processes. In a hyperglycemic environment, mitochondria are cells' biggest source of superoxide. According to the researchers' findings, paroxetine inhibits this activity without interfering with the mitochondria's vital normal function.

Further experiments yielded still more evidence that paroxetine protects endothelial cells under hyperglycemic conditions. Reactive oxygen species cause significant damage to DNA, RNA and proteins, but cell-culture experiments showed that paroxetine significantly reduced this effect. The drug had similarly beneficial results when tested on rat "aortic rings" -- small pieces of blood vessel kept alive with tissue-culture techniques. When treated with the vasodilator acetylcholine, these rings dilated just as if they were still part of a functioning circulatory system; endothelial dysfunction caused by diabetic hyperglycemia normally interferes with this function, but paroxetine restored it.

Finally, the researchers tested paroxetine in rats that had been injected with streptozotocin, a chemical that induces diabetes. The animals given paroxetine developed hypoglycemia, but like the aortic rings, their arteries retained the ability to dilate -- an indication that the drug had prevented damage to their epitheliums.

"The future potential of this study is that we may be able to 're-purpose' paroxetine for the experimental therapy of diabetic cardiac complications," Szabo said. "We'll need to carefully characterize its safety profile in diabetic patients, but I think there's definite potential here."

Other authors of the Diabetes paper include instructor Dr. Domokos Gerφ, research fellow Petra Szoleczy, postdoctoral fellow Kunihiro Suzuki, postdoctoral fellow Katalin Mσdis, faculty associate Dr. Gabor Olαh and postdoctoral fellow Ciro Colletta. This research was supported by the Juvenile Diabetes Foundation, the American Heart Association and the James W. McLaughlin Endowment.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. D. Gero, P. Szoleczky, K. Suzuki, K. Modis, G. Olah, C. Coletta, C. Szabo. Cell-Based Screening Identifies Paroxetine as an Inhibitor of Diabetic Endothelial Dysfunction. Diabetes, 2012; DOI: 10.2337/db12-0789

Cite This Page:

University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. "Antidepressant could do double duty as diabetes drug, study shows." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 14 December 2012. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/12/121214091616.htm>.
University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. (2012, December 14). Antidepressant could do double duty as diabetes drug, study shows. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 20, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/12/121214091616.htm
University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston. "Antidepressant could do double duty as diabetes drug, study shows." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/12/121214091616.htm (accessed September 20, 2014).

Share This



More Health & Medicine News

Saturday, September 20, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Could Grief Affect The Immune Systems Of Senior Citizens?

Could Grief Affect The Immune Systems Of Senior Citizens?

Newsy (Sep. 19, 2014) — The study found elderly people are much more likely to become susceptible to infection than younger adults going though a similar situation. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Jury Delivers Verdict in Salmonella Trial

Jury Delivers Verdict in Salmonella Trial

AP (Sep. 19, 2014) — A federal jury has convicted three people in connection with an outbreak of salmonella poisoning five years ago that sickened hundreds of people and was linked to a number of deaths. (Sept. 19) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
How The 'Angelina Jolie Effect' Increased Cancer Screenings

How The 'Angelina Jolie Effect' Increased Cancer Screenings

Newsy (Sep. 19, 2014) — Angelina's Jolie's decision to undergo a preventative mastectomy in 2013 inspired many women to seek early screenings for the disease. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
The Cost of Ebola

The Cost of Ebola

Reuters - Business Video Online (Sep. 18, 2014) — As Sierra Leone prepares for a three-day "lockdown" in its latest bid to stem the spread of Ebola, Ciara Lee looks at the financial implications of fighting the largest ever outbreak of the disease. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins