Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Clay key to high-temperature supercapacitors

Date:
September 3, 2013
Source:
Rice University
Summary:
Clay, an abundant and cheap natural material, is a key ingredient in a supercapacitor that can operate at very high temperatures, according to researchers who have developed such a device.

A composite of clay and an electrolyte allowed Rice University researchers to make sheets of material that can serve as both electrolyte and a separator in a new kind of high-temperature supercapacitor.
Credit: Ajayan Group/Rice University

Clay, an abundant and cheap natural material, is a key ingredient in a supercapacitor that can operate at very high temperatures, according to Rice University researchers who have developed such a device.

The Rice group of materials scientist Pulickel Ajayan reported today in Nature's online journal, Scientific Reports, that the supercapacitor is reliable at temperatures of up to 200 degrees Celsius (392 degrees Fahrenheit) and possibly beyond. It could be useful for powering devices for use in extreme environments, such as oil drilling, the military and space.

"Our intention is to completely move away from conventional liquid or gel-type electrolytes, which have been limited to low-temperature operation of electrochemical devices," said Arava Leela Mohana Reddy, lead author and a former research scientist at Rice.

"We found that a clay-based membrane electrolyte is a game-changing breakthrough that overcomes one of the key limitations of high-temperature operation of electrochemical energy devices," Reddy said. "By allowing safe operation over a wide range of temperatures without compromising on high energy, power and cycle life, we believe we can dramatically enhance or even eliminate the need for expensive thermal management systems."

A supercapacitor combines the best qualities of capacitors that charge in seconds and discharge energy in a burst and rechargeable batteries that charge slowly but release energy on demand over time. The ideal supercapacitor would charge quickly, store energy and release it as needed.

"Researchers have been trying for years to make energy storage devices like batteries and supercapacitors that work reliably in high-temperature environments, but this has been challenging, given the traditional materials used to build these devices," Ajayan said.

In particular, researchers have struggled to find an electrolyte, which conducts ions between a battery's electrodes, that won't break down when the heat is on. Another issue has been finding a separator that won't shrink at high temperatures and lead to short circuits. (The separator keeps the electrolyte on the anode and cathode sides of a traditional battery apart while allowing ions to pass through).

"Our innovation has been to identify an unconventional electrolyte/separator system that remains stable at high temperatures," Ajayan said.

The Rice researchers led by Reddy and Rachel Borges solved both problems at once. First, they investigated using room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) developed in 2009 by European and Australian researchers. RTILs show low conductivity at room temperature but become less viscous and more conductive when heated.

Clay has high thermal stability, high sorption capacity, a large active surface area and high permeability, Reddy said, and is commonly used in muds for oil drilling, in modern construction, in medical applications and as a binder by iron and steel foundries.

After combining equal amounts of RTIL and naturally occurring Bentonite clay into a composite paste, the researchers sandwiched it between layers of reduced graphene oxide and two current collectors to form a supercapacitor. Tests and subsequent electron microscope images of the device showed no change in the materials after heating it to 200 degrees Celsius. In fact, Reddy said, there was very little change in the material up to 300 degrees Celsius.

"The ionic conductivity increases almost linearly until the material reaches 180 degrees, and then saturates at 200," he said.

Despite a slight drop in capacity observed in the initial charge/discharge cycles, the supercapacitors were stable through 10,000 test cycles. Both energy and power density improved by two orders of magnitude as the operating temperature increased from room temperature to 200 degrees Celsius, the researchers found.

The team took its discovery a step further and combined the RTIL/clay with a small amount of thermoplastic polyurethane to form a membrane sheet that can be cut into various shapes and sizes, which allows design flexibility for devices.

Co-authors of the paper are graduate students Marco-Tulio Rodrigues and Hemtej Gullapalli and former postdoctoral researcher Kaushik Balakrishnan, all of Rice; and Glaura Silva, an associate professor at the Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Ajayan is the Benjamin M. and Mary Greenwood Anderson Professor in Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science and of chemistry at Rice. Borges is a visiting student from the Federal University of Minas Gerais. Reddy is now an assistant professor at Wayne State University in Detroit.

The Advanced Energy Consortium supported the research.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Rice University. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Raquel S. Borges, Arava Leela Mohana Reddy, Marco-Tulio F. Rodrigues, Hemtej Gullapalli, Kaushik Balakrishnan, Glaura G. Silva, Pulickel M. Ajayan. Supercapacitor Operating At 200 Degrees Celsius. Scientific Reports, 2013; 3 DOI: 10.1038/srep02572

Cite This Page:

Rice University. "Clay key to high-temperature supercapacitors." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 3 September 2013. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/09/130903194203.htm>.
Rice University. (2013, September 3). Clay key to high-temperature supercapacitors. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 28, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/09/130903194203.htm
Rice University. "Clay key to high-temperature supercapacitors." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/09/130903194203.htm (accessed July 28, 2014).

Share This




More Matter & Energy News

Monday, July 28, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

The Carbon Trap: US Exports Global Warming

The Carbon Trap: US Exports Global Warming

AP (July 28, 2014) AP Investigation: As the Obama administration weans the country off dirty fuels, energy companies are ramping-up overseas coal exports at a heavy price. (July 28) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Shipping Crates Get New 'lease' On Life

Shipping Crates Get New 'lease' On Life

Reuters - Business Video Online (July 25, 2014) Shipping containers have been piling up as America imports more than it exports. Some university students in Washington D.C. are set to get a first-hand lesson in recycling. Their housing is being built using refashioned shipping containers. Lily Jamali reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Europe's Highest Train Turns 80 in French Pyrenees

Europe's Highest Train Turns 80 in French Pyrenees

AFP (July 25, 2014) Europe's highest train, the little train of Artouste in the French Pyrenees, celebrates its 80th birthday. Duration: 01:05 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
TSA Administrator on Politics and Flight Bans

TSA Administrator on Politics and Flight Bans

AP (July 24, 2014) TSA administrator, John Pistole's took part in the Aspen Security Forum 2014, where he answered questions on lifting of the ban on flights into Israel's Tel Aviv airport and whether politics played a role in lifting the ban. (July 24) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins