Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Novel mutations define two types of bone tumor: Two related genes underlie the development of two rare bone tumors in nearly 100 per cent of patients

Date:
October 27, 2013
Source:
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute
Summary:
Scientists have made a rare discovery that allows them to attribute two types of tumour almost entirely to specific mutations that lie in two related genes.

Scientists have made a rare discovery that allows them to attribute two types of tumour almost entirely to specific mutations that lie in two related genes.

Related Articles


These mutations are found in nearly 100 per cent of patients suffering from two rare bone tumours; chondroblastoma and giant cell tumour of the bone.

Chondroblastoma and giant cell tumour of bone are benign bone tumours that primarily affect adolescents and young adults, respectively. They can be extremely debilitating tumours and recur despite surgery. Occasionally, these tumours can be difficult to differentiate from highly malignant bone cancers. The mutations found in this study may be used for diagnosis of chondroblastoma and giant cell tumour. In addition, the mutations offer a starting point into research for a specific treatment against these tumours.

"This is an exceptional, if not a once in a lifetime discovery for the team," says Dr Peter Campbell, co-lead author of the study from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "What we normally see is that the same mutations occur in many different types of tumour. These mutations, however, are highly specific to these tumours. Moreover, our findings suggest that these mutations are the key, if not the sole, driving force behind these tumours.

The team sequenced the full genomes of six chondroblastoma tumours and found that all six tumours had mutations in one of two related genes, H3F3A and H3F3B, which produce an identical protein, called histone 3.3.

Extending the study to more chondroblastoma tumours and to other bone tumours, they were able to verify that this mutation was found in almost all cases of chondroblastoma. Interestingly, the team also observed that most cases of a different type of bone tumour, giant cell tumour of bone, have a mutation in the H3F3A gene, albeit in a different position in the gene. A pattern emerged where both tumour types, chondroblastoma and giant cell tumour of bone, are defined by specific histone 3.3 mutations.

The team pinpointed the specificity of these mutations to affecting a single amino acid residue on the histone 3.3 protein; G34W amino acid residue underlies giant cell tumour of the bone and K36M amino acid residue underlies chondroblastoma.

"The high prevalence of these mutations in each tumour type is striking, but what's most remarkable is the unprecedented specificity of these mutations," says Dr Sam Behjati, first author from the Wellcome trust Sanger Institute. "The specificity of the mutations not only informs us about how these tumours develop, but also points to some fundamental function of these genes in normal bone development."

"Our findings will be highly beneficial to clinicians as we now have a diagnostic marker to differentiate chondroblastoma and giant cell tumour of bones from other bone tumours," says Professor Adrienne Flanagan, co-lead author from the Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, and UCL Cancer Institute. "This study highlights the importance of continuing to sequence all types of human cancer."

"We are also extremely grateful to our patients and collaborators, without their help we would not have been able to study these extremely rare diseases," adds Professor Flanagan.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Sam Behjati, Patrick S Tarpey, Nadθge Presneau, Susanne Scheipl, Nischalan Pillay, Peter Van Loo, David C Wedge, Susanna L Cooke, Gunes Gundem, Helen Davies, Serena Nik-Zainal, Sancha Martin, Stuart McLaren, Victoria Goodie, Ben Robinson, Adam Butler, Jon W Teague, Dina Halai, Bhavisha Khatri, Ola Myklebost, Daniel Baumhoer, Gernot Jundt, Rifat Hamoudi, Roberto Tirabosco, M Fernanda Amary, P Andrew Futreal, Michael R Stratton, Peter J Campbell, Adrienne M Flanagan. Distinct H3F3A and H3F3B driver mutations define chondroblastoma and giant cell tumor of bone. Nature Genetics, 2013; DOI: 10.1038/ng.2814

Cite This Page:

Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Novel mutations define two types of bone tumor: Two related genes underlie the development of two rare bone tumors in nearly 100 per cent of patients." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 27 October 2013. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/10/131027140630.htm>.
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. (2013, October 27). Novel mutations define two types of bone tumor: Two related genes underlie the development of two rare bone tumors in nearly 100 per cent of patients. ScienceDaily. Retrieved November 26, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/10/131027140630.htm
Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. "Novel mutations define two types of bone tumor: Two related genes underlie the development of two rare bone tumors in nearly 100 per cent of patients." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/10/131027140630.htm (accessed November 26, 2014).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Health & Medicine News

Wednesday, November 26, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

From Popcorn To Vending Snacks: FDA Ups Calorie Count Rules

From Popcorn To Vending Snacks: FDA Ups Calorie Count Rules

Newsy (Nov. 25, 2014) — The US FDA is announcing new calorie rules on Tuesday that will require everywhere from theaters to vending machines to include calorie counts. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Daily Serving Of Yogurt Could Reduce Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes

Daily Serving Of Yogurt Could Reduce Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes

Newsy (Nov. 25, 2014) — Need another reason to eat yogurt every day? Researchers now say it could reduce a person's risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Madagascar Working to Contain Plague Outbreak

Madagascar Working to Contain Plague Outbreak

AFP (Nov. 24, 2014) — Madagascar said Monday it is trying to contain an outbreak of plague -- similar to the Black Death that swept Medieval Europe -- that has killed 40 people and is spreading to the capital Antananarivo. Duration: 00:42 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Are Female Bosses More Likely To Be Depressed?

Are Female Bosses More Likely To Be Depressed?

Newsy (Nov. 24, 2014) — A new study links greater authority with increased depressive symptoms among women in the workplace. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories

 

Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins