Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Motion-sensing cells in eye let brain 'know' about directional changes

Date:
March 4, 2014
Source:
University of California - San Diego
Summary:
How do we "know" from the movements of speeding car in our field of view if it's coming straight toward us or more likely to move to the right or left? In a detailed study of the neurons linking the eyes and brains of mice, biologists discovered that the ability of our brains and those of other mammals to figure out and process in our brains directional movements is a result of the activation in the cortex of signals that originate from the direction-sensing cells in the retina of our eyes.

The discovery of the link between direction-sensing cells in the retina and the cortex has a number of practical implications for neuroscientists who treat disabilities in motion processing, such as dysgraphia, a condition sometimes associated with dyslexia that affects direction-oriented skills.
Credit: Andrew Huberman, UC San Diego

How do we "know" from the movements of speeding car in our field of view if it's coming straight toward us or more likely to move to the right or left?

Scientists have long known that our perceptions of the outside world are processed in our cortex, the six-layered structure in the outer part of our brains. But how much of that processing actually happens in cortex? Do the eyes tell the brain a lot or a little about the content of the outside world and the objects moving within it?

In a detailed study of the neurons linking the eyes and brains of mice, biologists at UC San Diego discovered that the ability of our brains and those of other mammals to figure out and process in our brains directional movements is a result of the activation in the cortex of signals that originate from the direction-sensing cells in the retina of our eyes.

"Even though direction-sensing cells in the retina have been known about for half a century, what they actually do has been a mystery- mostly because no one knew how to follow their connections deep into the brain," said Andrew Huberman, an assistant professor of neurobiology, neurosciences and ophthalmology at UC San Diego, who headed the research team, which also involved biologists at the Salk Institute for Biological Sciences. "Our study provides the first direct link between direction-sensing cells in the retina and the cortex and thereby raises the new idea that we 'know' which direction things are moving specifically because of the activation of these direction-selective retinal neurons." The study, recently published online, will appear in the March 20 print issue of Nature.

The discovery of the link between direction-sensing cells in the retina and the cortex has a number of practical implications for neuroscientists who treat disabilities in motion processing, such as dysgraphia, a condition sometimes associated with dyslexia that affects direction-oriented skills.

"Understanding the cells and neural circuits involved in sensing directional motion may someday help us understand defects in motion processing, such as those involved dyslexia, and it may inform strategies to treat or even re-wire these circuits in response to injury or common neurodegenerative diseases, such as glaucoma or Alzheimer's," said Huberman.

He and his team discovered the link in mice by using new types of modified rabies viruses that were pioneered by Ed Callaway, a professor at the Salk Institute, and by imaging the activity of neurons deep in the brain during visual experience.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of California - San Diego. The original article was written by Kim McDonald. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Alberto Cruz-Martνn, Rana N. El-Danaf, Fumitaka Osakada, Balaji Sriram, Onkar S. Dhande, Phong L. Nguyen, Edward M. Callaway, Anirvan Ghosh, Andrew D. Huberman. A dedicated circuit links direction-selective retinal ganglion cells to the primary visual cortex. Nature, 2014; DOI: 10.1038/nature12989

Cite This Page:

University of California - San Diego. "Motion-sensing cells in eye let brain 'know' about directional changes." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 4 March 2014. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/03/140304130039.htm>.
University of California - San Diego. (2014, March 4). Motion-sensing cells in eye let brain 'know' about directional changes. ScienceDaily. Retrieved August 29, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/03/140304130039.htm
University of California - San Diego. "Motion-sensing cells in eye let brain 'know' about directional changes." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/03/140304130039.htm (accessed August 29, 2014).

Share This




More Mind & Brain News

Friday, August 29, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Treadmill 'trips' May Reduce Falls for Elderly

Treadmill 'trips' May Reduce Falls for Elderly

AP (Aug. 28, 2014) — Scientists are tripping the elderly on purpose in a Chicago lab in an effort to better prevent seniors from falling and injuring themselves in real life. (Aug.28) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Alice in Wonderland Syndrome

Alice in Wonderland Syndrome

Ivanhoe (Aug. 27, 2014) — It’s an unusual condition with a colorful name. Kids with “Alice in Wonderland” syndrome see sudden distortions in objects they’re looking at or their own bodies appear to change size, a lot like the main character in the Lewis Carroll story. Video provided by Ivanhoe
Powered by NewsLook.com
Stopping Schizophrenia Before Birth

Stopping Schizophrenia Before Birth

Ivanhoe (Aug. 27, 2014) — Scientists have long called choline a “brain booster” essential for human development. Not only does it aid in memory and learning, researchers now believe choline could help prevent mental illness. Video provided by Ivanhoe
Powered by NewsLook.com
Personalized Brain Vaccine for Glioblastoma

Personalized Brain Vaccine for Glioblastoma

Ivanhoe (Aug. 27, 2014) — Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive brain cancer in humans. Now a new treatment using the patient’s own tumor could help slow down its progression and help patients live longer. Video provided by Ivanhoe
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins