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Scientists catch brain damage in the act

Date:
March 13, 2014
Source:
University of British Columbia
Summary:
Scientists have uncovered how inflammation and lack of oxygen conspire to cause brain damage in conditions such as stroke and Alzheimer's disease, bringing researchers a step closer to finding potential targets to treat neurodegenerative disorders. Chronic inflammation and hypoxia, or oxygen deficiency, are hallmarks of several brain diseases, but little has been known about how they contribute to symptoms such as memory loss.

Scientists have uncovered how inflammation and lack of oxygen conspire to cause brain damage in conditions such as stroke and Alzheimer's disease.

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The discovery, published today in Neuron, brings researchers a step closer to finding potential targets to treat neurodegenerative disorders.

Chronic inflammation and hypoxia, or oxygen deficiency, are hallmarks of several brain diseases, but little was known about how they contribute to symptoms such as memory loss.

The study used state-of-the-art techniques that reveal the movements of microglia, the brain's resident immune cells. Brain researcher Brian MacVicar had previously captured how they moved to areas of injury to repair brain damage.

The new study shows that the combination of inflammation and hypoxia activates microglia in a way that persistently weakens the connection between neurons. The phenomenon, known as long-term depression, has been shown to contribute to cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease.

"This is a never-before-seen mechanism among three key players in the brain that interact together in neurodegenerative disorders," says MacVicar with the Djavad Mowafaghian Centre for Brain Health at UBC and Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute.

"Now we can use this knowledge to start identifying new potential targets for therapy."

A video of describing the findings, including microscopy footage of how microglia repair brain damage, is available at http://youtu.be/iVtyAF_24hE.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of British Columbia. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Brian MacVicar et al. Microglial CR3 Activation Triggers Long-Term Synaptic Depression in the Hippocampus via NADPH Oxidase. Neuron, March 2014 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2014.01.043

Cite This Page:

University of British Columbia. "Scientists catch brain damage in the act." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 13 March 2014. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/03/140313123233.htm>.
University of British Columbia. (2014, March 13). Scientists catch brain damage in the act. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 1, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/03/140313123233.htm
University of British Columbia. "Scientists catch brain damage in the act." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/03/140313123233.htm (accessed April 1, 2015).

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