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How brain 'reboots' itself to consciousness after anesthesia

Date:
June 18, 2014
Source:
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Health Sciences
Summary:
One of the great mysteries of anesthesia is how patients can be temporarily rendered completely unresponsive during surgery and then wake up again, with their memories and skills intact. "Recovery from anesthesia is not simply the result of the anesthetic 'wearing off,' but also of the brain finding its way back through a maze of possible activity states to those that allow conscious experience," one researcher said. "Put simply, the brain reboots itself."

New findings suggest the anesthetized brain must pass through certain "hubs" on the path back to consciousness. Above, the prevalence of particular clusters of brain activity states as recorded in rats that had been administered an anesthetic. The longest appear in red and the shortest in yellow and green.
Credit: UCLA

One of the great mysteries of anesthesia is how patients can be temporarily rendered completely unresponsive during surgery and then wake up again, with their memories and skills intact.

A new study by Dr. Andrew Hudson, an assistant professor in anesthesiology at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, and colleagues provides important clues about the processes used by structurally normal brains to navigate from unconsciousness back to consciousness. Their findings are currently available in the early online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Previous research has shown that the anesthetized brain is not "silent" under surgical levels of anesthesia but experiences certain patterns of activity, and it spontaneously changes its activity patterns over time, Hudson said.

For the current study, the research team recorded the electrical activity from several brain areas associated with arousal and consciousness in a rodent model that had been given the inhaled anesthetic isoflurane. They then slowly decreased the amount of anesthesia, as is done with patients in the operating room, monitoring how the electrical activity in the brain changed and looking for common activity patterns across all the study subjects.

The researchers found that the brain activity occurred in discrete clumps, or clusters, and that the brain did not jump between all of the clusters uniformly.

A small number of activity patterns consistently occurred in the anesthetized rodents, Hudson noted. The patterns depended on how much anesthesia the subject was receiving, and the brain would jump spontaneously from one activity pattern to another. A few activity patterns served as "hubs" on the way back to consciousness, connecting activity patterns consistent with deeper anesthesia to those observed under lighter anesthesia.

"Recovery from anesthesia is not simply the result of the anesthetic 'wearing off,' but also of the brain finding its way back through a maze of possible activity states to those that allow conscious experience," Hudson said. "Put simply, the brain reboots itself."

The study suggests a new way to think about the human brain under anesthesia, and could encourage physicians to reexamine how they approach monitoring anesthesia in the operating room. Additionally, if the results are applicable to other disorders of consciousness -- such as coma or minimally conscious states -- doctors may be better able to predict functional recovery from brain injuries by looking at the spontaneously occurring jumps in brain activity.

In addition, this work provides some constraints for theories about how the brain leads to consciousness itself, Hudson said.

Going forward, the UCLA researchers will test other anesthetic agents to determine if they produce similar characteristic brain activity patterns with "hub" states. They also hope to better characterize how the brain jumps between patterns.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Health Sciences. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. A. E. Hudson, D. P. Calderon, D. W. Pfaff, A. Proekt. Recovery of consciousness is mediated by a network of discrete metastable activity states. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2014; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1408296111

Cite This Page:

University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Health Sciences. "How brain 'reboots' itself to consciousness after anesthesia." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 18 June 2014. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/06/140618135834.htm>.
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Health Sciences. (2014, June 18). How brain 'reboots' itself to consciousness after anesthesia. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 23, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/06/140618135834.htm
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Health Sciences. "How brain 'reboots' itself to consciousness after anesthesia." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/06/140618135834.htm (accessed September 23, 2014).

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