Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

'Master switch' for myelination in human brain stem cells is identified

Date:
June 30, 2014
Source:
University at Buffalo
Summary:
The single transcription factor or 'master switch' that initiates the critical myelination process in the brain has been identified by researchers. The identification of this factor, SOX10, in human brain cells, brings researchers closer to the goal of treating multiple sclerosis (MS) by transplanting into patients the brain cells that make myelin.

The identification of the transcription factor, SOX10, in human brain cells, brings researchers closer to the goal of treating multiple sclerosis (MS) by transplanting into patients the brain cells that make myelin.
Credit: Jing Wang

Scientists at the University at Buffalo have identified the single transcription factor or "master switch" that initiates the critical myelination process in the brain. The research will be published online in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) on June 30.

The identification of this factor, SOX10, in human brain cells, brings researchers closer to the goal of treating multiple sclerosis (MS) by transplanting into patients the brain cells that make myelin.

"Now that we have identified SOX10 as an initiator of myelination, we can work on developing a viral or pharmaceutical approach to inducing it in MS patients," says Fraser Sim, PhD, senior author on the paper and assistant professor in the UB Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology in the School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences.

"If we could create a small molecule drug that would switch on SOX10, that would be therapeutically important," he adds.

Stem cell therapy is seen as having dramatic potential for treating MS, but there are key obstacles, especially the length of time it takes for progenitor cells to turn into oligodendrocytes, the brain's myelin-making cells.

Using currently available methods, Sim explains, it can take as long as a year to generate a sufficient number of human oligodendrocyte cells to treat a single MS patient.

That's partly because there are so many steps: the skin or blood cell must be turned into induced pluripotent stem cells, which can differentiate into any other type of cell and from which neural progenitor cells can be produced. Those progenitor cells then must undergo differentiation to oligodendrocyte progenitors that are capable of ultimately producing the oligodendrocytes.

"Ideally, we'd like to get directly to oligodendrocyte progenitors," says Sim. "The new results are a stepping stone to the overall goal of being able to take a patient's skin cells or blood cells and create from them oligodendrocyte progenitors," he says.

Using fetal (not embryonic) brain stem cells, the UB researchers searched for transcription factors that are absent in neural progenitor cells and switched on in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells.

While neural progenitor cells are capable of producing myelin, they do so very poorly and can cause undesirable outcomes in patients, so the only candidate for transplantation is the oligodendrocyte progenitor.

"The ideal cell to transplant is the oligodendrocyte progenitor cell," Sim says. "The question was, could we use one of these transcription factors to turn the neural progenitor cell into an oligodendrocyte progenitor cell?"

To find out, they looked at different characteristics, such as mRNA expression, protein and whole gene expression and functional studies.

"We narrowed it down to a short list of 10 transcription factors that were made exclusively by oligodendrocyte progenitor cells," says Sim.

"Among all 10 factors that we studied, only SOX10 was able to make the switch from neural progenitor to oligodendrocyte progenitor cell," says Sim.

In addition, the UB researchers found that SOX10 could expedite the transformation from oligodendrocyte progenitor cell to differentiation as an oligodendrocyte, the myelin-producing cell and the ultimate treatment goal for MS.

"SOX10 facilitates both steps," says Sim.

That's tantalizing, he says, because one of the biggest problems with MS is that cells get stuck in the step between the oligodendrocyte progenitor cell and the oligodendrocyte.

"In MS, first the immune system attacks the brain, but the brain is unable to repair itself effectively," explains Sim. "If we could boost the regeneration step by facilitating formation of oligodendrocytes from progenitor cells, then we might be able to keep patients in the relapsing remitting stage of MS, a far less burdensome stage of disease than the later, progressive stage."


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University at Buffalo. The original article was written by Ellen Goldbaum. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. J. Wang, S. U. Pol, A. K. Haberman, C. Wang, M. A. O'Bara, F. J. Sim. Transcription factor induction of human oligodendrocyte progenitor fate and differentiation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2014; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1408295111

Cite This Page:

University at Buffalo. "'Master switch' for myelination in human brain stem cells is identified." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 30 June 2014. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/06/140630164251.htm>.
University at Buffalo. (2014, June 30). 'Master switch' for myelination in human brain stem cells is identified. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 22, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/06/140630164251.htm
University at Buffalo. "'Master switch' for myelination in human brain stem cells is identified." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/06/140630164251.htm (accessed July 22, 2014).

Share This




More Health & Medicine News

Tuesday, July 22, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Gilead's $1000-a-Pill Drug Could Cure Hep C in HIV-Positive People

Gilead's $1000-a-Pill Drug Could Cure Hep C in HIV-Positive People

TheStreet (July 21, 2014) New research shows Gilead Science's drug Sovaldi helps in curing hepatitis C in those who suffer from HIV. In a medical study, the combination of Gilead's Hep C drug with anti-viral drug Ribavirin cured 76% of HIV-positive patients suffering from the most common hepatitis C strain. Hepatitis C and related complications have been a top cause of death in HIV-positive patients. Typical medication used to treat the disease, including interferon proteins, tended to react badly with HIV drugs. However, Sovaldi's %1,000-a-pill price tag could limit the number of patients able to access the treatment. TheStreet's Keris Lahiff reports from New York. Video provided by TheStreet
Powered by NewsLook.com
$23.6 Billion Awarded To Widow In Smoking Lawsuit

$23.6 Billion Awarded To Widow In Smoking Lawsuit

Newsy (July 20, 2014) Cynthia Robinson claims R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company hid the health and addiction risks of its products, leading to the death of her husband in 1996. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Tooth Plaque Provides Insight Into Diets Of Ancient People

Tooth Plaque Provides Insight Into Diets Of Ancient People

Newsy (July 19, 2014) Research on plaque from ancient teeth shows that our prehistoric ancestor's had a detailed understanding of plants long before developing agriculture. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Contaminated Water Kills 3 Babies in South African Town

Contaminated Water Kills 3 Babies in South African Town

AFP (July 18, 2014) Contaminated water in South Africa's northwestern town of Bloemhof kills three babies and hospitalises over 500 people. The incident highlights growing fears over water safety in South Africa. Duration: 02:22 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins