Reference Terms
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Eye

An eye is an organ of vision that detects light.

Different kinds of light-sensitive organs are found in a variety of organisms.

The simplest eyes do nothing but detect whether the surroundings are light or dark, while more complex eyes can distinguish shapes and colors.

Many animals, including some mammals, birds, reptiles and fish, have two eyes which may be placed on the same plane to be interpreted as a single three-dimensional "image" (binocular vision), as in humans; or on different planes producing two separate "images" (monocular vision), such as in rabbits and chameleons.

In most vertebrates and some mollusks, the eye works by allowing light to enter it and project onto a light-sensitive panel of cells known as the retina at the rear of the eye, where the light is detected and converted into electrical signals.

These are then transmitted to the brain via the optic nerve.

Such eyes are typically roughly spherical, filled with a transparent gel-like substance called the vitreous humour, with a focusing lens and often an iris which regulates the intensity of the light that enters the eye.

The eyes of cephalopods, fish, amphibians, and snakes usually have fixed lens shapes, and focusing vision is achieved by telescoping the lens - similar to how a camera focuses.

Note:   The above text is excerpted from the Wikipedia article "Eye", which has been released under the GNU Free Documentation License.
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August 5, 2015

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