Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Symptoms Found That Identify Early-Stage HIV Infection

Date:
December 19, 1997
Source:
Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions
Summary:
Researchers from Johns Hopkins and India find that a simple set of symptoms including fever, joint pain, and night sweats can quickly identify people who recently have been infected with the AIDS virus, even before there is evidence from a blood test. Unprotected sex with a prostitute and a fresh genital ulcer also are tip-offs to recent HIV infection.

Researchers from Johns Hopkins and India find that a simple set of symptoms including fever, joint pain, and night sweats can quickly identify people who recently have been infected with the AIDS virus, even before there is evidence from a blood test. Unprotected sex with a prostitute and a fresh genital ulcer also are tip-offs to recent HIV infection.

The findings, published in the Dec. 17, 1997 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association are important because people in the very early, "acute," phase of HIV infection have not yet produced HIV antibodies, which are the proteins that show up in AIDS blood tests. Thus, the tests can be negative, even if the person is infected.

In the current Indian study -- the largest of acutely infected people in the world -- the investigators compared antibody test evidence with simple clinical signs to see which signs were present even when the antibody test was negative. The team, which included researchers from the National AIDS Research Institute of India, screened a group of patients in two sexually transmitted disease clinics in Pune, India, for an HIV protein called p24 antigen. Having p24 antigen is proof of HIV infection.

"We were able to show that certain symptoms tended to appear in people who had p24 even before they had a positive antibody test," said Robert C. Bollinger, associate professor of medicine. The study was supported by the National Institutes of Health and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.

"Those with a recent history of joint pain were more than six times more likely to test positive for p24 antigen," Bollinger says, "and those with a recent history of night sweats had a ninefold increase in the risk of testing positive. Also, patients who did not test positive for antibodies but did report fever within the last three months were five times more likely to test positive for p24 antigen than those without a recent history of fever."

The study's results conflict with previous findings that up to 90 percent of people acutely infected with HIV have certain "unique" symptoms, such as swollen lymph glands, sore throat and oral thrush. The present study found only 47 percent of individuals infected with HIV have such symptoms.

The researchers conducted the study between May 1993 and June 1996. Among a total of 3,874 patients, 58 (1.5 percent) had p24 antigen on the first visit and most of these individuals (88 percent) were men.

Thirty-nine (77 percent) of the 51 men who were p24-positive reported having sex with a prostitute, while 131 (51 percent) of 255 control men did so. Active genital ulcers were found in 46 (79 percent) of the 58 p24-positive men and women, compared with 137 (47 percent) of the 290 control patients.

The World Health Organization estimates that India has more than five million HIV-infected persons and may face the largest burden of HIV infection of any country in the world by the end of this decade.

Other authors of the study include Sanjay M. Mehendale, Ramesh S. Paranjape and Deepak A. Gadkari (The National AIDS Research Institute, Pune, India); Ronald S. Brookmeyer, and Mary E. Shepherd (Johns Hopkins); and Thomas C. Quinn (Johns Hopkins and The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Md).


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions. "Symptoms Found That Identify Early-Stage HIV Infection." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 19 December 1997. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1997/12/971219062900.htm>.
Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions. (1997, December 19). Symptoms Found That Identify Early-Stage HIV Infection. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 1, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1997/12/971219062900.htm
Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions. "Symptoms Found That Identify Early-Stage HIV Infection." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1997/12/971219062900.htm (accessed October 1, 2014).

Share This



More Health & Medicine News

Wednesday, October 1, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Ebola Cases Keep Coming for Monrovia's Island Hospital

Ebola Cases Keep Coming for Monrovia's Island Hospital

AFP (Oct. 1, 2014) A look inside Monrovia's Island Hospital, a key treatment centre in the fight against Ebola in Liberia's capital city. Duration: 00:34 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Ebola Puts Stress on Liberian Health Workers

Ebola Puts Stress on Liberian Health Workers

AP (Oct. 1, 2014) The Ebola outbreak is putting stress on first responders in Liberia. Ambulance drivers say they are struggling with chronic shortages of safety equipment and patients who don't want to go to the hospital. (Oct. 1) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Doctors Reassure Public Ebola Patient Won't Cause Outbreak

Doctors Reassure Public Ebola Patient Won't Cause Outbreak

Newsy (Sep. 30, 2014) After the announcement that the first U.S. patient had been diagnosed with Ebola, doctors were quick to say a U.S. outbreak is highly unlikely. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
TX Hospital Confirms Patient Admitted With Ebola

TX Hospital Confirms Patient Admitted With Ebola

AP (Sep. 30, 2014) Medical officials from Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital confirm they are treating a patient with the Ebola virus, the first case found in the US. (Sept. 30 Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins