Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Rockefeller University Cell Biologist, Günter Blobel, Wins 1999 Nobel Prize In Medicine

Date:
October 13, 1999
Source:
Rockefeller University
Summary:
Rockefeller University cell biologist Günter Blobel, M.D., Ph.D., has been awarded the 1999 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Blobel, the John D. Rockefeller Jr. Professor at The Rockefeller University and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator, heads the Laboratory of Cell Biology.

October 11, 1999 -- Rockefeller University cell biologist Günter Blobel, M.D., Ph.D., was awarded the 1999 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine today. Blobel, the John D. Rockefeller Jr. Professor at The Rockefeller University and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator, heads the Laboratory of Cell Biology.

Blobel studies the process by which newly made proteins are transported across the membranes of cell structures called organelles. Because the accurate distribution of proteins to their proper places in the cell is necessary for a cell to function, these findings have an immediate bearing on many diseases, including cystic fibrosis, Alzheimer's disease and AIDS.

An average cell possesses about a billion protein molecules that exist in thousands of types and constantly need replacement. Making proteins and shipping them to appropriate destinations, such as the cell's internal organelles, is a vital activity in cells. Proteins are manufactured by cellular structures called ribosomes. Pioneering research by Blobel and his associates revealed how proteins are transported from ribosomes and integrated into other organelles or transported out of the cell.

Work in Blobel's laboratory revealed the existence of a zip code system in the cell. Each newly made protein has an organelle-specific address, a stretch of the protein referred to as a signal sequence that is recognized by receptors on an organelle's surface. Blobel and his colleagues also showed that, for at least one organelle called the endoplasmic reticulum, the binding of the signal sequence to its receptor opens a watery channel in the membrane through which the protein can travel. Blobel now works on identifying similar channels in other organelles.

Current research in Blobel's laboratory also explores the movement of proteins across nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), huge protein units suspended in the circular openings within the membrane of a cell's nucleus. NPCs can accommodate the passage of large molecular assemblies, such as RNA or DNA bound to proteins. Each NPC mediates as many as 10 import and 10 export events per second. His laboratory recently determined the three-dimensional structure of a complex of transport factors called karyopherin-beta 2, which binds to proteins and targets them to the nuclear pore complex.

Rockefeller began in 1901 as The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, the first U.S. biomedical research center. Rockefeller faculty members have made significant achievements, including the discovery that DNA is the carrier of genetic information and the recent determination of the 3-D structure of the cellular RNA polymerase, a molecular machine that activates individual genes. The university has ties to 20 Nobel laureates, five of whom are on campus. Thirty-three faculty members are elected members of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, including the president, Arnold J. Levine, Ph.D.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Rockefeller University. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

Rockefeller University. "Rockefeller University Cell Biologist, Günter Blobel, Wins 1999 Nobel Prize In Medicine." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 13 October 1999. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1999/10/991013075936.htm>.
Rockefeller University. (1999, October 13). Rockefeller University Cell Biologist, Günter Blobel, Wins 1999 Nobel Prize In Medicine. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 23, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1999/10/991013075936.htm
Rockefeller University. "Rockefeller University Cell Biologist, Günter Blobel, Wins 1999 Nobel Prize In Medicine." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1999/10/991013075936.htm (accessed July 23, 2014).

Share This




More Health & Medicine News

Wednesday, July 23, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Idaho Boy Helps Brother With Disabilities Complete Triathlon

Idaho Boy Helps Brother With Disabilities Complete Triathlon

Newsy (July 23, 2014) — An 8-year-old boy helped his younger brother, who has a rare genetic condition that's confined him to a wheelchair, finish a triathlon. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Stone Fruit Listeria Scare Causes Sweeping Recall

Stone Fruit Listeria Scare Causes Sweeping Recall

Newsy (July 22, 2014) — The Wawona Packing Company has issued a voluntary recall on the stone fruit it distributes due to a possible Listeria outbreak. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Huge Schizophrenia Study Finds Dozens Of New Genetic Causes

Huge Schizophrenia Study Finds Dozens Of New Genetic Causes

Newsy (July 22, 2014) — The 83 new genetic markers could open dozens of new avenues for schizophrenia treatment research. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
CDC Head Concerned About a Post-Antibiotic Era

CDC Head Concerned About a Post-Antibiotic Era

AP (July 22, 2014) — Sounding alarms about the growing threat of antibiotic resistance, CDC Director Tom Frieden warned Tuesday if the global community does not confront the problem soon, the world will be living in a devastating post-antibiotic era. (July 22) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins