Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Timing Of Chemical Signal Critical For Normal Emotional Development

Date:
April 2, 2002
Source:
NIH/National Institute Of Mental Health
Summary:
A signaling protein suspected of malfunctioning in anxiety and mood disorders plays a key role in the development of emotional behavior, report researchers funded by the National Institute of Mental Health. Mice lacking it in frontal brain circuits during an early critical period fail to develop normal reactions in anxiety-producing situations.

A signaling protein suspected of malfunctioning in anxiety and mood disorders plays a key role in the development of emotional behavior, report researchers funded by the National Institute of Mental Health. Mice lacking it in frontal brain circuits during an early critical period fail to develop normal reactions in anxiety-producing situations.

Related Articles


Rene Hen, Ph.D., Columbia University, and colleagues created mice that lacked the protein, which brain cells use to receive signals from the chemical messenger serotonin, by knocking-out the gene that codes for it. As adults, these "knockout" mice were slow to venture into -- or eat in -- unfamiliar environments. By selectively restoring, or "rescuing" certain populations of the receptor proteins, the researchers have now pinpointed when and where they enable the brain to cope with anxiety. Hen, Cornelius Gross, Ph.D., Xiaoxi Zhuang, Ph.D, and colleagues report on their discovery in the March 28, 2002 Nature.

Brain neurons communicate with each other by secreting messenger chemicals, such as serotonin, which cross the synaptic gulf between cells and bind to receptors on neighboring cell membranes. Medications that enhance such binding of serotonin to its receptor (serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors, or SSRIs) are widely prescribed to treat anxiety and depression, suggesting that the receptor plays an important role in regulating these emotions.

Behavior of the animals in the study mimicked human anxiety. The mice bred not to express the gene that codes for the serotonin receptor (5-HT1A) moved around less than normal animals in open spaces, balked at entering elevated mazes, and were slower to begin eating in such novel environments. Yet, the researchers didn't know which of two populations of serotonin receptors -- one in the forebrain and another deep in the brainstem -- was responsible. To find out, they crossed the receptor knockout mice with mice engineered to turn receptor expression on and off in specific brain regions. This gave birth to a line of transgenic animals in which only the forebrain receptors were rescued from the gene knockout. This "rescue" line of mice behaved normally when tested for the anxiety-like behaviors, suggesting a key role for the receptor in forebrain circuits mediating anxiety.

Next, the researchers treated adult mice - knockout, rescue, and normal - with a drug (doxycycline) that shuts off receptor expression. Even without the receptors, the adult rescue mice continued to show normal anxiety-like behavior. The researchers inferred that the receptor "functions earlier in development to establish normal adult anxiety-like behavior."

To find out when this occurs, they gave the receptor-abolishing drug to breeding pairs of rescue mice to turn off receptor expression in their pups during the embryonic and early postnatal period. As adults, these offspring behaved just as anxiously as knockout mice when tested. This, together with the timing of receptor expression in the rescue mice, suggested that the critical period for establishing normal anxiety-like behavior is between 5 and 21 days after birth.

Serotonin stimulation of the forebrain receptor during this period likely triggers "long lasting changes in brain chemistry or structure that are essential for normal emotional behavior throughout life," suggest the researchers. They note a number of studies pointing to such a role for serotonin during this critical time.

Intrigued by evidence that the serotonin receptor may be abnormal in patients with panic disorder and post-traumatic stress syndrome, other NIMH-supported researchers are embarking on brain imaging studies of its function in these anxiety disorders.

The current study was supported under a NIMH grant on the biology of serotonin to Irwin Lucki, Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania. Also participating were: Kimberly Stark, Ph.D., Sylvie Ramboz, Ph.D., Ronald Oosting, Ph.D., Luca Santarelli, M.D., Columbia University; Lynn Kirby, Ph.D., Sheryl Beck, Ph.D., Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.

The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Federal Government's primary agency for biomedical and behavioral research. NIH is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by NIH/National Institute Of Mental Health. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

NIH/National Institute Of Mental Health. "Timing Of Chemical Signal Critical For Normal Emotional Development." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 2 April 2002. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2002/03/020329072508.htm>.
NIH/National Institute Of Mental Health. (2002, April 2). Timing Of Chemical Signal Critical For Normal Emotional Development. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 25, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2002/03/020329072508.htm
NIH/National Institute Of Mental Health. "Timing Of Chemical Signal Critical For Normal Emotional Development." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2002/03/020329072508.htm (accessed October 25, 2014).

Share This



More Mind & Brain News

Saturday, October 25, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Academic Scandal Shocks UNC

Academic Scandal Shocks UNC

AP (Oct. 23, 2014) A scandal involving bogus classes and inflated grades at the University of North Carolina was bigger than previously reported, a new investigation found. (Oct. 23) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Working Mother Getaway: Beaches Turks & Caicos

Working Mother Getaway: Beaches Turks & Caicos

Working Mother (Oct. 22, 2014) Feast your eyes on this gorgeous family-friendly resort. Video provided by Working Mother
Powered by NewsLook.com
What Your Favorite Color Says About You

What Your Favorite Color Says About You

Buzz60 (Oct. 22, 2014) We all have one color we love to wear, and believe it or not, your color preference may reveal some of your character traits. In celebration of National Color Day, Krystin Goodwin (@kyrstingoodwin) highlights what your favorite colors may say about you. Video provided by Buzz60
Powered by NewsLook.com
First-Of-Its-Kind Treatment Gives Man Ability To Walk Again

First-Of-Its-Kind Treatment Gives Man Ability To Walk Again

Newsy (Oct. 21, 2014) A medical team has for the first time given a man the ability to walk again after transplanting cells from his brain onto his severed spinal cord. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins