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Scientists Find America’s Oldest Image Of A Deity; Icon Pushes Back Origin Of Religion In America 1,000 Years

Date:
April 15, 2003
Source:
Field Museum
Summary:
Archaeologists have found a 4,000-year-old gourd fragment that bears an archaic image of the Staff God – the principal deity in South America during thousands of years.

CHICAGO — Archaeologists have found a 4,000-year-old gourd fragment that bears an archaic image of the Staff God – the principal deity in South America during thousands of years.

“Like the cross, the Staff God is a clearly recognizable religious icon,” says Jonathan Haas, MacArthur curator of North American anthropology at The Field Museum. “This appears to be the oldest identifiable religious icon found in the Americas. It indicates that organized religion began in the Andes more than 1,000 years earlier than previously thought.”

Members of the Proyecto Arqueológico Norte Chico found the gourd fragment along the coast of Peru, 120 miles north of Lima, while collecting surface artifacts at a looted cemetery. The fragment, which was once part of a gourd bowl about the size of softball, has been radiocarbon dated to 2250 B.C.

Archaeology will publish a description of the new discovery in its May-June issue, which hits the newsstands Tuesday, April 15. The report is authored by Haas; Winifred Creamer, associate professor of anthropology at Northern Illinois University; and Alvaro Ruiz, Co-Director of the Proyecto Arqueológico Norte Chico.

According to Ruiz, “the Staff God, also known as Dios de los Baculos, is an iconic motif with a long and broad history throughout several Andean cultures. This deity figure is commonly shown in a frontal view, with a fanged mouth and splayed and clawed feet. Snakes are often part of the figure’s headdress or integrated into its garments. Most commonly, the deity is depicted holding a staff in one or both hands, hence the name.”

The incised and painted image on the newly found gourd fragment, while simple and archaic in style, clearly has fangs and splayed feet. Its left arm appears to end in a snake’s head, and its right hand holds a staff. A similar incised and painted drawing on a second gourd fragment from a nearby cemetery represents the same or a similar figure.

The figures were found in the Patavilca River Valley, one of four coastal valleys that make up the Norte Chico region of the Peruvian coast. This region was densely populated between 2600 B.C. and 2000 B.C. and appears to have been the ancestral home of Andean civilization that culminated 3500 years later in the Inca. “To date, 26 major centers have been recorded in the Norte Chico region, all with monumental architecture, large-scale ceremonial structures, and complex residential and administrative architecture,” Creamer says. “It is a truly unique concentration of settlements anywhere in the Americas.”

All the sites lack pottery, which was introduced on the Peruvian coast about 1900 B.C.

As part of a long-term project focused on the Norte Chico preceramic, the 2002 fieldwork was designed to extract radiocarbon dates, gain information on the construction of the various platform mounds, and make preliminary collections at two cemeteries east of the modern town of Barranca. Both gourd fragments were found at these cemeteries, which today stand as large stone outcrops covered with windblown sand.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Field Museum. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

Field Museum. "Scientists Find America’s Oldest Image Of A Deity; Icon Pushes Back Origin Of Religion In America 1,000 Years." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 15 April 2003. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2003/04/030415084320.htm>.
Field Museum. (2003, April 15). Scientists Find America’s Oldest Image Of A Deity; Icon Pushes Back Origin Of Religion In America 1,000 Years. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 28, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2003/04/030415084320.htm
Field Museum. "Scientists Find America’s Oldest Image Of A Deity; Icon Pushes Back Origin Of Religion In America 1,000 Years." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2003/04/030415084320.htm (accessed July 28, 2014).

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