Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

A New Twist On Fiber Optics: Spiraling Glass Fibers Provide New Way To Control Behavior Of Light

Date:
July 5, 2004
Source:
National Science Foundation
Summary:
By twisting fiber optic strands into helical shapes, researchers have created unique structures that can precisely filter, polarize or scatter light. Compatible with standard fiber optic lines, these hair-like structures may replace bulky components in sensors, gyroscopes and other devices.

Chiral optical fiber created by Chiral Photonics. Fiber is less than 100 millionths of a meter in diameter.
Credit: Chiral Photonics, Inc.; National Science Foundation

ARLINGTON, Va. -- By twisting fiber optic strands into helical shapes, researchers have created unique structures that can precisely filter, polarize or scatter light. Compatible with standard fiber optic lines, these hair-like structures may replace bulky components in sensors, gyroscopes and other devices.

While researchers are still probing the unusual properties of the new fibers, tests show the strands impart a chiral, or "handed," character to light by polarizing photons according to certain physical properties.

Victor Kopp of Chiral Photonics in Clifton, N.J., and his colleagues describe the new fibers in the July 2 issue of Science.

Several of these fibers, and their applications, are being developed in part with funds from the National Science Foundation (NSF) Small Business Innovation Research program.

In conventional optical fibers, light is transmitted from one end to the other through a round core housed within a concentric outer cladding. But, because a circular core does not develop handedness when twisted, the research team wound rectangular-core fibers to create a double helix.

When the team tested the twisted fiber, they discovered that some photons left the core and entered the cladding. Photons with the same handedness as the fiber entered the cladding whereas photons with handedness opposite that of the fiber remained in the core.

With only a relatively loose twist--roughly 100 microns to form a complete turn--photons with a handedness that coincides with the fiber's twist scatter out of the core at a shallow angle and are trapped in the cladding. With a tighter twist, photons with the same handedness as the fiber scatter at a wider angle, allowing the photons to escape from the cladding into the surrounding space. Only light of a single polarization remains in the fiber (see animation). At the tightest twists, roughly one-millionth of a meter to complete a turn, photons with the same handedness as the structure are reflected backwards in the core.

Because the environment surrounding the fiber affects the wavelength of the light embedded in the cladding, "loosely" twisted fibers can serve as sensors for pressure, temperature, torque and chemical composition.

With moderately twisted fibers, researchers can manipulate the resulting polarized light in useful ways, leading to a range of applications such as gyroscopes for navigation systems, current meters for electric power stations, and chemical and materials analysis equipment.

For tightly wound fibers, the amount of twist determines the precise wavelength of the light remaining in the fiber, producing light that is ideal for filter and laser applications.

Chiral Photonics is developing manufacturing processes for commercial production of the technology. Using a small filament oven, technicians soften the optical fibers while twisting them, which allows greater control of the process.

This research was funded both NSF and the National Institute of Standards and Technology Advanced Technology Program.

Comments from NSF:"This technology could be one of the most significant recent advances in the field of polarization and wavelength control. Equally impressive is the innovative science that will be developed based on this new technology. This project should advance the current understanding in advanced fiber structures." – Winslow Sargeant, the NSF program officer who oversees the Chiral Photonics SBIR award.

"There is an enormous host of applications for which chiral fiber gratings could find markets. Fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are a well-established technology for transmitting data, but suffer from high cost due to the equipment and time required to craft them. Chiral fiber gratings can replace FBGs in some applications with the possible added advantage of low-cost production." – Winslow Sargeant

Comments from the researchers:

"We believe the creative process is only beginning as these photonic building blocks that add functionality into fiber are being introduced to the ingenuity of photonic designers and their applications." – Dan Neugroschl, President, Chiral Photonics.

"We have shown that chiral fibers with a wide range of twists can be created in a versatile continuous manufacturing process under computer control. These fibers are the physical structure in which different states of a light wave can be coupled to perform useful functions." – Azriel Genack, CTO, Chiral Photonics.

"These fibers are unique because light moving along the fiber core with a specific wavelength and polarization can either be coupled to a more slowly moving wave in the cladding surrounding the fiber core, or be scattered out of the fiber or be sent backwards within the core." – Victor Kopp, Director of R&D


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by National Science Foundation. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

National Science Foundation. "A New Twist On Fiber Optics: Spiraling Glass Fibers Provide New Way To Control Behavior Of Light." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 5 July 2004. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/07/040702092628.htm>.
National Science Foundation. (2004, July 5). A New Twist On Fiber Optics: Spiraling Glass Fibers Provide New Way To Control Behavior Of Light. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 23, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/07/040702092628.htm
National Science Foundation. "A New Twist On Fiber Optics: Spiraling Glass Fibers Provide New Way To Control Behavior Of Light." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/07/040702092628.htm (accessed July 23, 2014).

Share This




More Matter & Energy News

Wednesday, July 23, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Government Approves East Coast Oil Exploration

Government Approves East Coast Oil Exploration

AP (July 18, 2014) The Obama administration approved the use of sonic cannons to discover deposits under the ocean floor by shooting sound waves 100 times louder than a jet engine through waters shared by endangered whales and turtles. (July 18) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Sunken German U-Boat Clearly Visible For First Time

Sunken German U-Boat Clearly Visible For First Time

Newsy (July 18, 2014) The wreckage of the German submarine U-166 has become clearly visible for the first time since it was discovered in 2001. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Obama: U.S. Must Have "smartest Airports, Best Power Grid"

Obama: U.S. Must Have "smartest Airports, Best Power Grid"

Reuters - US Online Video (July 17, 2014) President Barak Obama stopped by at a lunch counter in Delaware before making remarks about boosting the nation's infrastructure. Mana Rabiee reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Crude Oil Prices Bounce Back After Falling Below $100 a Barrel

Crude Oil Prices Bounce Back After Falling Below $100 a Barrel

TheStreet (July 16, 2014) Oil Futures are bouncing back after tumbling below $100 a barrel for the first time since May yesterday. Jeff Grossman is the president of BRG Brokerage and trades at the NYMEX. Grossman tells TheStreet the Middle East is always a concern for oil traders. Oil prices were pushed down in recent weeks on Libya increasing its production. Supply disruptions in Iraq fading also contributed to prices falling. News from China's economic front showing a growth for the second quarter also calmed fears on its slowdown. Jeff Grossman talks to TheStreet's Susannah Lee on this and more on the Energy Department's Energy Information Administration (EIA) report. Video provided by TheStreet
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins