Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Is Interleukin-6 The "Holy Grail" Of Exercise Mediation?

Date:
October 11, 2004
Source:
American Physiological Society
Summary:
For the most of the past century, researchers have searched for a muscle-contraction-induced factor, which mediates some of the exercise effects in other tissues and organs such as the liver and adipose tissue.

Austin, Texas (Oct. 6, 2004) – For the most of the past century, researchers have searched for a muscle-contraction-induced factor, which mediates some of the exercise effects in other tissues and organs such as the liver and adipose tissue. In their quest for this magic trigger, or class of effectors, it’s been referred to as the “work stimulus,” “work factor” or the “exercise factor.”

Related Articles


Bente Karlund Pedersen, professor of internal medicine at Rigshospitalet and leader of the Muscle Center at the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, and her team are part of that search. They found a cytokine, Interleukin-6, which is produced by contracting muscles and released into the blood, and demonstrated that IL-6 has many biologic roles, including:

* Activation/inhibition of metabolic genes

* Induction of lipolysis, or the breakdown of fat

* Inhibition of insulin resistance, and

* Suppression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production.

In fact, Pedersen says the wide impact of muscle-derived IL-6 not only fulfills all the criteria for this “exercise factor” but that such classes of cytokines should be reclassified as “myokines.” She points out that because of its diverse effects, IL-6 has potential as a therapeutic drug in treating such metabolic disorders as obesity, type 2 diabetes and atherosclerosis.

Many roles and sources prompt additional IL-6 research

Over the years, “increased levels of IL-6 after exercise is remarkably consistent,” Pedersen and a collaborator, Mark A. Febbraio of the Dept. of Physiology at the University of Melbourne, Australia, noted in an article in the FASEB Journal. However, the actual appearance of IL-6 into circulation depends on several factors including exercise intensity, duration and mode. For instance, vigorous rowing doubles the amount of IL-6 in plasma relatively quickly, while in endurance activity IL-6 doesn’t appear until later. Activation of the IL-6 gene seems to be enhanced when muscle glycogen content is low, while carbohydrate supplementation during exercise has been shown to inhibit the release of IL-6 from contracting muscle.

What does seem consistent is that IL-6 originates from the contracting limb and that skeletal muscle cells themselves are the likely source of production. The skeletal muscles seem to produce IL-6 in order to maintain metabolic homeostasis during periods of altered metabolic demand such as muscular exercise or insulin stimulation.

Such a powerful effector has also attracted some negative reaction, but Pedersen notes that IL-6 overall seems to have a “positive metabolic role in health and in the treatment of disease.” For instance high levels of IL-6 have been found in patients with “metabolic syndrome,” which may be explained by the fact that IL-6 is produced in adipose tissue. Similarly, increased levels of TNF-alpha and IL-6 have been observed in obese individuals, smokers and patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus but there’s no evidence that either is actually the source of these problems.

Indeed, it’s possible, for instance, that IL-6 expression may be up-regulated in insulin resistant skeletal muscle in an attempt to overcome the impaired glucose uptake. And in other contexts, the current thinking is that IL-6 has primarily anti-inflammatory effects. It is this combination of effects that has prompted such widespread study.

###

Pedersen is speaking at the American Physiological Society’s 2004 Intersociety Meeting, “The Integrative Biology of Exercise,” Oct. 6-9 in Austin.

The 2004 Intersociety Meeting on the Integrated Biology of Exercise is cosponsored by APS, the American College of Sports Medicine and the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology. Additional support as unrestricted educational grants came from: the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMSD), Gatorade Sports Sciences Institute, Pfizer Inc. and U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM).


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by American Physiological Society. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

American Physiological Society. "Is Interleukin-6 The "Holy Grail" Of Exercise Mediation?." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 11 October 2004. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/10/041007083624.htm>.
American Physiological Society. (2004, October 11). Is Interleukin-6 The "Holy Grail" Of Exercise Mediation?. ScienceDaily. Retrieved November 25, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/10/041007083624.htm
American Physiological Society. "Is Interleukin-6 The "Holy Grail" Of Exercise Mediation?." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/10/041007083624.htm (accessed November 25, 2014).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Health & Medicine News

Tuesday, November 25, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

From Popcorn To Vending Snacks: FDA Ups Calorie Count Rules

From Popcorn To Vending Snacks: FDA Ups Calorie Count Rules

Newsy (Nov. 25, 2014) — The US FDA is announcing new calorie rules on Tuesday that will require everywhere from theaters to vending machines to include calorie counts. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Daily Serving Of Yogurt Could Reduce Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes

Daily Serving Of Yogurt Could Reduce Risk Of Type 2 Diabetes

Newsy (Nov. 25, 2014) — Need another reason to eat yogurt every day? Researchers now say it could reduce a person's risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Madagascar Working to Contain Plague Outbreak

Madagascar Working to Contain Plague Outbreak

AFP (Nov. 24, 2014) — Madagascar said Monday it is trying to contain an outbreak of plague -- similar to the Black Death that swept Medieval Europe -- that has killed 40 people and is spreading to the capital Antananarivo. Duration: 00:42 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Are Female Bosses More Likely To Be Depressed?

Are Female Bosses More Likely To Be Depressed?

Newsy (Nov. 24, 2014) — A new study links greater authority with increased depressive symptoms among women in the workplace. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories

 

Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins