Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Cincinnati Study Of Chernobyl Residents Uncovers New Cause Of Thyroid Cancer

Date:
January 21, 2005
Source:
Journal Of Clinical Investigation
Summary:
Cincinnati University scientists studying papillary thyroid cancer in Chernobyl residents following the 1986 nuclear plant accident have identified a novel genetic mutation event that occurs as a result of their exposure to high levels of radioiodide.

Cincinnati University scientists studying papillary thyroid cancer in Chernobyl residents following the 1986 nuclear plant accident have identified a novel genetic mutation event that occurs as a result of their exposure to high levels of radioiodide.

Yuri E. Nukiforov led a team of researchers from both Cincinnati University and the University of Munich in identifying a novel oncogene (a mutated and/or overproduced version of a normal gene that alone or together with other changes can convert a cell into a tumor cell) in papillary thyroid carcinomas that developed in patients exposed to radiation at Chernobyl. Their results are published in the January 3 issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation.

Mutations of the genes BRAF, RET, or RAS are found in 70% of all cases of papillary thyroid tumors. In sporadic tumors (where patients have not been exposed to high levels of radiation), the most common genetic mutational event occurs within the BRAF gene. In contrast, mutations observed in radiation-induced tumors most commonly involve fusion of one end of the RET gene to the opposite end of various other genes to create a "chimeric oncogene." The two most common gene rearrangement types are called RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3. Both types of mutations promote transformation of normal cells into malignant cells.

In their current study, Nukiforov and colleagues identified a novel oncogene in Chernobyl residents with papillary thyroid cancer. This oncogene resulted from fusion of part of the AKAP9 gene with one end of the BRAF gene; both genes are present within chromosome 7. The intrachromosomal AKAP9-BRAF fusion event resulted in the loss of portions of the BRAF protein that normally inhibit the kinase activity of BRAF. BRAF is then able to transmit uncontrolled signals to normal cells that promote their division and transformation into malignant tumor cells.

In an accompanying commentary, Alfredo Fusco and colleagues from Università degli Studi di Napoli "Federico II", in Naples, state that this study "provides further evidence supporting the concept that chromosomal inversions represent the most typical molecular lesion in tumors occurring in Belarus and the surrounding region after the Chernobyl accident….the peculiar susceptibility of thyroid follicular cells to chromosomal rearrangement is remarkable."

This study represents a major breakthrough in our knowledge of the genetic events involved in papillary thyroid initiation. It demonstrates that while BRAF activation is a common feature of both sporadic and post-Chernobyl thyroid cancers, it is the genetic event underlying BRAF activation that can differentiate between the two types of tumors, with a higher proportion of point mutations occurring in sporadic thyroid cancers and intrachromosomal inversion responsible for a larger percentage of radiation-induced tumors. At this stage, the signaling pathway activated as a result of these mutational events (known as the MAPK pathway) is the most attractive target for new drugs that may intervene in the development of human papillary thyroid carcinomas.

###

TITLE: Oncogenic AKAP9-BRAF fusion is a novel mechanism of MAPK pathway activation in thyroid cancer

AUTHOR: Yuri NikiforovUniversity of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

A PDF of this article this article is available at: http://www.jci.org/cgi/content/full/115/1/94.

ACCOMPANYING COMMENTARY:

TITLE: A new mechanism of BRAF activation in human thyroid papillary carcinomas

AUTHOR: Alfredo FuscoUniversità degli Studi di Napoli "Federico II", Naples, Italy.

A PDF of this article this article is available at: http://www.jci.org/cgi/content/full/115/1/20.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Journal Of Clinical Investigation. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

Journal Of Clinical Investigation. "Cincinnati Study Of Chernobyl Residents Uncovers New Cause Of Thyroid Cancer." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 21 January 2005. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/01/050111124247.htm>.
Journal Of Clinical Investigation. (2005, January 21). Cincinnati Study Of Chernobyl Residents Uncovers New Cause Of Thyroid Cancer. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 26, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/01/050111124247.htm
Journal Of Clinical Investigation. "Cincinnati Study Of Chernobyl Residents Uncovers New Cause Of Thyroid Cancer." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/01/050111124247.htm (accessed July 26, 2014).

Share This




More Health & Medicine News

Saturday, July 26, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Beatings and Addiction: Pakistan Drug 'clinic' Tortures Patients

Beatings and Addiction: Pakistan Drug 'clinic' Tortures Patients

AFP (July 24, 2014) — A so-called drugs rehab 'clinic' is closed down in Pakistan after police find scores of ‘patients’ chained up alleging serial abuse. Duration 03:05 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Too Few Teens Receiving HPV Vaccination, CDC Says

Too Few Teens Receiving HPV Vaccination, CDC Says

Newsy (July 24, 2014) — The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is blaming doctors for the low number of children being vaccinated for HPV. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
New Painkiller Designed To Discourage Abuse: Will It Work?

New Painkiller Designed To Discourage Abuse: Will It Work?

Newsy (July 24, 2014) — The FDA approved Targiniq ER on Wednesday, a painkiller designed to keep users from abusing it. Like any new medication, however, it has doubters. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Doctor At Forefront Of Fighting Ebola Outbreak Gets Ebola

Doctor At Forefront Of Fighting Ebola Outbreak Gets Ebola

Newsy (July 24, 2014) — Sheik Umar Khan has treated many of the people infected in the Ebola outbreak, and now he's become one of them. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins