Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Youth Fitness Linked To Diabetes Risk

Date:
January 18, 2005
Source:
Medical College Of Georgia
Summary:
For adults, weight loss and exercise have long been prescribed to prevent type 2 diabetes and heart disease. Now, Medical College of Georgia researchers have found decreasing body fat and increasing cardiovascular fitness also play a major role in reducing the risks for children.

For adults, weight loss and exercise have long been prescribed to prevent type 2 diabetes and heart disease.

Now, Medical College of Georgia researchers have found decreasing body fat and increasing cardiovascular fitness also play a major role in reducing the risks for children.

In the December issue of the Journal of Pediatrics, researchers at MCG’s Georgia Prevention Institute report that youths who are cardiovascularly fit and lean have lower fasting insulin concentrations than youths with high body fat and low cardiovascular fitness levels.

“High levels of fasting insulin implies a higher risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease,” said Dr. Bernard Gutin, exercise physiologist and lead author of the study. “Having high insulin means the pancreas is still able to maintain control over the glucose, but it’s working harder to do so. If this process continues, the pancreas may be unable to keep up and the person gets diabetes.”

In addition to studying insulin levels, the two-year epidemiology study looked at body fat percentages and fitness levels of 278 black and white 14- to 18-year-olds. The researchers measured body fat with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, or DXA-scan, a more precise measure than a commonly used risk indicator called a body mass index. Where BMI calculates risk for chronic disease based on weight and height, a DXA-scan measures percentages of the body comprised of fat.

“Measuring only BMI ignores the proportion of the body made up of muscle,” said Dr. Gutin. “A person with high BMI who has large muscles is not at as much risk for diabetes as a person with the same high BMI with poorly developed muscles.”

To assess cardiovascular health, the researchers administered a treadmill test where walking became progressively more difficult as the treadmill grade increased. Those whose heart rates did not increase drastically as the grade increased were categorized as the most fit.

“We’ve known for some time that obese kids have higher insulin levels, what hasn’t been known is the relationship to cardiovascular fitness,” said Dr. Gutin. “When we study obese kids or adults, we say the high insulin might be due to obesity, but it might also be due to the lack of fitness that goes with the obesity. With this study, we’ve shown that poor fitness and high fat are related to high insulin levels.”

Study participants with the highest insulin levels had the highest percentages of body fat and the lowest levels of cardiovascular fitness, increasing their risk for type 2 diabetes and heart disease. Overall, black girls had the highest fasting insulin concentrations and white girls had the lowest. The study also showed that the harmful effects of low cardiovascular fitness and high blood pressure are greater in boys than girls.

“These data may point to one of the reasons why women prior to menopause have a lower risk of heart disease. Estrogen may have a protective effect against the deleterious effects of poor fitness and high fatness,” said Dr. Gutin.

The research, he said, is an early step in discovering how disease processes, such as type 2 diabetes, which were previously thought to be adult problems, begin in childhood.

“We are operating under the assumption that the pathophysiologic processes that lead to these diseases begin in childhood,” he said. “We want to clarify how these processes develop early in life, which will help us develop interventions to prevent the processes from continuing.

“The bottom line is both a reduction in fat and an improvement in fitness are important for reducing risk,” said Dr. Gutin. “Before this study, we knew this for adults, but not for youths. The earlier you intervene and keep the disease process from progressing, the better.”

Dr. Gutin’s collaborators include MCG exercise physiologists Zenong Yin and Paule Barbeau; pediatric endocrinologist William Hoffman; nutrition scientist Barbara Gower at the University of Alabama at Birmingham; and Matt Humphries, project coordinator.

The research was supported by the National Institutes of Health and the University of Alabama at Birmingham Clinical Nutrition Research Unit Core Laboratory.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Medical College Of Georgia. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

Medical College Of Georgia. "Youth Fitness Linked To Diabetes Risk." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 18 January 2005. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/01/050111163230.htm>.
Medical College Of Georgia. (2005, January 18). Youth Fitness Linked To Diabetes Risk. ScienceDaily. Retrieved August 30, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/01/050111163230.htm
Medical College Of Georgia. "Youth Fitness Linked To Diabetes Risk." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/01/050111163230.htm (accessed August 30, 2014).

Share This




More Health & Medicine News

Saturday, August 30, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

3 Things To Know About The Ebola Outbreak's Progression

3 Things To Know About The Ebola Outbreak's Progression

Newsy (Aug. 29, 2014) Here are three things you need to know about the deadly Ebola outbreak's progression this week. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Killer Amoeba Found in Louisiana Water System

Killer Amoeba Found in Louisiana Water System

AP (Aug. 28, 2014) State health officials say testing has confirmed the presence of a killer amoeba in a water system serving three St. John the Baptist Parish towns. (Aug. 28) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Who Could Be Burnt by WHO's E-Cigs Move?

Who Could Be Burnt by WHO's E-Cigs Move?

Reuters - Business Video Online (Aug. 28, 2014) The World Health Organisation has called for the regulation of electronic cigarettes as both tobacco and medical products. Ciara Lee looks at the impact of the move on the tobacco industry. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
CDC Director On Ebola Outbreak: 'It's Worse Than I Feared'

CDC Director On Ebola Outbreak: 'It's Worse Than I Feared'

Newsy (Aug. 28, 2014) CDC director Tom Frieden says the Ebola outbreak is even worse than he feared. But he also said there's still hope to contain it. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins