Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Hopkins Study Suggests Commercially Available Antibiotic May Help Fight Dementia In HIV Patients

Date:
April 6, 2006
Source:
Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions
Summary:
An antibiotic commonly used to treat a variety of serious infections may also help prevent dementia in HIV patients, according to a test-tube study of human brain cells by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine neurologist Jeffrey Rumbaugh, MD, PhD.

An antibiotic commonly used to treat a variety of serious infections may also help prevent dementia in HIV patients, according to a test-tube study of human brain cells by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine neurologist Jeffrey Rumbaugh, M.D., Ph.D.

Results of the lab study with ceftriaxone are expected to be presented at the American Academy of Neurology's 58th annual meeting on April 5 in San Diego, Calif.

Rumbaugh added that, although ceftriaxone is FDA approved and could be used at any time by patients suffering from HIV dementia, there is not yet enough data to support doing so.

The study looked at two proteins, called Tat and gp120, that are part of the virus that causes HIV infection and that are implicated in the development of HIV dementia, according to Dr. Rumbaugh, the study's lead author. HIV is the only virus that makes Tat and gp120, which are produced during its normal life cycle, though other viruses make similar proteins. Dementia is a common side effect of long-term HIV infection, but there are no known specific treatments for this complication. According to Rumbaugh, Tat and gp120 are believed to cause dementia by reducing the expression of a brain chemical called EAAT-2 (excitatory amino acid transporter-2). EAAT-2 absorbs the neurotransmitter glutamate from the space between neurons (the synapse), thereby preventing excess neuronal excitation, which in turn can cause cell death and brain damage.

Ceftriaxone, used to treat pneumonias, sexually transmitted diseases, bacterial meningitis and other infections, is a known stimulator of EAAT-2 expression and protects against neuronal injury in mice with nervous system disorders. To test ceftriaxone's potential in HIV, Rumbaugh and colleagues grew human neuronal cell cultures in a lab from existing human neuron cell lines, treated them with a range of doses of ceftriaxone, and exposed them to Tat or gp120. They found that the antibiotic protected the neurons against both HIV proteins. The dose of ceftriaxone needed for protection was well within the range currently used for treatment of bacterial infections.

"These results indicated that this class of drugs may prove effective in treating HIV patients with dementia," Rumbaugh says.

About 500,000 people in the United States alone have HIV dementia. And although new cases of HIV dementia have declined over the last 10 years (due to the increased availability of effective HIV treatments), the prevalence of HIV dementia is on the rise since people are living longer with HIV.

"We hope this research might help many patients with other forms of dementia, such as Alzheimer's, and infections of the brain, like herpes encephalitis and West Nile encephalitis," says Rumbaugh. "However, it will require a lot more development before drugs like these can be used even to treat patients with HIV dementia, let alone to treat patients with other neurological diseases."

Other researchers in this study include Jeffrey Rothstein, M.D., Ph.D., and Avindra Nath, M.D., both professors in the Department of Neurology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.

This study was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health.



Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions. "Hopkins Study Suggests Commercially Available Antibiotic May Help Fight Dementia In HIV Patients." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 6 April 2006. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/04/060406100915.htm>.
Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions. (2006, April 6). Hopkins Study Suggests Commercially Available Antibiotic May Help Fight Dementia In HIV Patients. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 25, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/04/060406100915.htm
Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions. "Hopkins Study Suggests Commercially Available Antibiotic May Help Fight Dementia In HIV Patients." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/04/060406100915.htm (accessed July 25, 2014).

Share This




More Health & Medicine News

Friday, July 25, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Beatings and Addiction: Pakistan Drug 'clinic' Tortures Patients

Beatings and Addiction: Pakistan Drug 'clinic' Tortures Patients

AFP (July 24, 2014) A so-called drugs rehab 'clinic' is closed down in Pakistan after police find scores of ‘patients’ chained up alleging serial abuse. Duration 03:05 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Too Few Teens Receiving HPV Vaccination, CDC Says

Too Few Teens Receiving HPV Vaccination, CDC Says

Newsy (July 24, 2014) The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is blaming doctors for the low number of children being vaccinated for HPV. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
New Painkiller Designed To Discourage Abuse: Will It Work?

New Painkiller Designed To Discourage Abuse: Will It Work?

Newsy (July 24, 2014) The FDA approved Targiniq ER on Wednesday, a painkiller designed to keep users from abusing it. Like any new medication, however, it has doubters. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Doctor At Forefront Of Fighting Ebola Outbreak Gets Ebola

Doctor At Forefront Of Fighting Ebola Outbreak Gets Ebola

Newsy (July 24, 2014) Sheik Umar Khan has treated many of the people infected in the Ebola outbreak, and now he's become one of them. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

    Health News

      Environment News

        Technology News



          Save/Print:
          Share:

          Free Subscriptions


          Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

          Get Social & Mobile


          Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

          Have Feedback?


          Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
          Mobile: iPhone Android Web
          Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
          Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
          Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins