June 9, 2008 Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease that affects approximately 2--3% of individuals in the Western world. New data, generated by Karin Scharffetter-Kochanek and colleagues, at the University of Ulm, Germany, have indicated that a subset of immune cells known as Tregs (which act to prevent other immune cells from responding inappropriately) are dysfunctional in a mouse model of psoriasis and that this dysfunction contributes substantially to the development of disease.
Mice that express a reduced amount of the protein CD18 (Cd18hypo mice) develop a skin disease that resembles the symptoms of individuals with psoriasis. In the study, Tregs isolated from Cd18hypo mice failed to suppress the proliferation of disease-causing immune cells because they secreted lower levels of the soluble factor TGF-beta than normal Tregs.
This was also important for their inability to control disease in vivo, as transplantation of normal Tregs into Cd18hypo mice resulted in a substantial improvement in the psoriasis-like disease, whereas if these cells were transplanted in the presence of antibodies that neutralized TGF-beta there was no improvement in disease.
The authors therefore conclude that psoriasis-like disease in Cd18hypo mice is caused mainly by a defect in Treg function and suggest that maintaining CD18 levels is important for ensuring that Tregs function optimally.
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- Karin Scharffetter-Kochanek et al. TGF-beta--dependent suppressive function of Tregs requires wild-type levels of CD18 in a mouse model of psoriasis. Journal of Clinical Investigation, June 2, 2008
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