Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Biomarkers For Ischaemia And Necrosis - Simple Blood Tests To Detect Myocardial Infarction

Date:
September 2, 2008
Source:
European Society of Cardiology (ESC)
Summary:
Myocardial infarction is the major cause of death worldwide. With effective treatment within our grasp, accurate and rapid diagnosis is of major medical and economic importance. With the development of sensitive trials depicting either cardiac troponin I or cardiac troponin T, the only current biomarkers thought to be unique to the heart, the diagnosis of myocardial infarction has been revolutionized.

Myocardial infarction is the major cause of death worldwide. With effective treatment within our grasp, accurate and rapid diagnosis is of major medical and economic importance.

With the development of sensitive trials depicting either cardiac troponin I or cardiac troponin T, the only current biomarkers thought to be unique to the heart, the diagnosis of myocardial infarction has been revolutionised. In a patient presenting with chest pain, a rise in cardiac troponin has become a mandatory feature for the clinical diagnosis of myocardial infarction.

Cardiac troponins are our current gold standard for the detection of myocardial necrosis. The more sensitive the cardiac troponin essay used, the smaller the number of dying myocardial cells necessary for this signal to be detected. This has enabled us to detect high risk acute coronary syndrome patients with only minor myocardial damage. Unfortunately, current cardiac troponin essays have one major limitation in common with their predecessor (CKMB): it takes three to four hours after symptom onset until cardiac troponin becomes detectable.

Ongoing large clinical multicenter studies, including the Advantageous Predictors of Acute Coronary Syndromes Evaluation (APACE), are assessing whether novel cardiac troponin assays with even higher sensitivity or other biomarkers reflecting different pathophysiological processes such as, for example, copeptin (reflecting endogenuous stress) or myeloperoxidase (reflecting plaque instability and inflammation) will significantly shorten the “troponin-blind” period. Obviously, this would constitute a major medical and economic improvement in clinical practice.

However, the development of high sensitivity cardiac troponin assays also poses dilemmas: First, many physicians are reluctant to use the term “myocardial infarction” in patients with unstable coronary artery disease and tiny elevations of cardiac troponin. As these patients still seem to be at increased risk of death as compared to patients without detectable cardiac troponin levels, the current ESC/AHA/ACC guidelines encourage us to do so. Second, elevations in cardiac troponin I and T reflect myocardial injury, but do not indicate its mechanism.

Myocardial infarction can only be diagnosed when cardiac troponin I or T are increased in the clinical setting of myocardial ischemia – this means the myocardial cells suffer from a lack of oxygen and are “suffocating” due to reduced oxygen supply usually related to a clot in the coronary arteries or less commonly due to other causes of decreased supply such as coronary spasm or hypotension or due to increased oxygen demand such as septic shock.

The presenter, Professor C Mueller of the University Hospital Basel, said "As we currently lack a biomarker that reliably detects clot formation in the coronary arteries, we are left with our basic clinical tools, including patient history, to differentiate myocardial infarction from other causes of myocardial injury. Third, once a diagnostic test is declared “gold standard”, it becomes virtually impossible to rule out definitely false positive test results. This is currently the case with cardiac troponins. We strongly believe that the heart is invariably the exclusive source of cardiac troponin elevations, regardless of the specific patient conditions. However, as both the ECG and imaging techniques have far lower sensitivity to myocardial necrosis than cardiac troponin, scientific proof cannot be provided.

He continued, "In clinical practice we currently do not have a validated biomarker to assess myocardial ischemia. Cardiac troponins are blind for ischemia without necrosis. In both patients with myocardial ischemia at rest (unstable coronary artery disease) and exercise-induced myocardial ischemia (stable coronary artery disease) elevated B-type natriuretic peptides are associated with the presence of myocardial ischemia. However, the accuracy of B-type natriuretic peptides does not seem to be high enough for use in clinical practice. The ability to identify a patient at risk of myocardial cell death, before it actually occurs, is still a major unmet clinical need."

This material was presented by Professor C Mueller at the ESC Congress 2008 conference organized by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) on September 2, 2008.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

European Society of Cardiology (ESC). "Biomarkers For Ischaemia And Necrosis - Simple Blood Tests To Detect Myocardial Infarction." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 2 September 2008. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/09/080902075546.htm>.
European Society of Cardiology (ESC). (2008, September 2). Biomarkers For Ischaemia And Necrosis - Simple Blood Tests To Detect Myocardial Infarction. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 16, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/09/080902075546.htm
European Society of Cardiology (ESC). "Biomarkers For Ischaemia And Necrosis - Simple Blood Tests To Detect Myocardial Infarction." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/09/080902075546.htm (accessed September 16, 2014).

Share This



More Health & Medicine News

Tuesday, September 16, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Man Floats for 31 Hours in Gulf Waters

Man Floats for 31 Hours in Gulf Waters

AP (Sep. 16, 2014) A Texas man is lucky to be alive after he and three others floated for more than a day in the Gulf of Mexico when their boat sank during a fishing trip. (Sept. 16) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
EU Ministers and Experts Meet to Discuss Ebola Reponse

EU Ministers and Experts Meet to Discuss Ebola Reponse

AFP (Sep. 15, 2014) The European Commission met on Monday to coordinate aid that the EU can offer to African countries affected by the Ebola outbreak. Duration: 00:58 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Despite The Risks, Antibiotics Still Overprescribed For Kids

Despite The Risks, Antibiotics Still Overprescribed For Kids

Newsy (Sep. 15, 2014) A new study finds children are prescribed antibiotics twice as often as is necessary. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
FDA Eyes Skin Shocks Used at Mass. School

FDA Eyes Skin Shocks Used at Mass. School

AP (Sep. 15, 2014) The FDA is considering whether to ban devices used by the Judge Rotenberg Educational Center in Canton, Massachusetts, the only place in the country known to use electrical skin shocks as aversive conditioning for aggressive patients. (Sept. 15) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins