Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

High Levels Of Prenatal Smoking Exposure Affect Sleep Patterns In Preterm Neonates

Date:
December 9, 2008
Source:
American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Summary:
A new study is the first to show that high levels of prenatal smoking exposure strongly modify sleep patterns in preterm neonates, which places infants at a higher risk for developmental difficulties that could persist throughout early and middle childhood.

A study in the Dec. 1 issue of the journal Sleep is the first to show that high levels of prenatal smoking exposure strongly modify sleep patterns in preterm neonates, which places infants at a higher risk for developmental difficulties that could persist throughout early and middle childhood.

Results indicate that preterm neonates born to heavy-smoking mothers who smoked more than 10 cigarettes per day displayed disrupted sleep structure and sleep continuity. From 7 p.m. to 8 a.m. they slept almost two hours less than controls who were born to non-smoking mothers, and their sleep was more fragmented. Compared with controls, neonates born to both heavy and low smokers displayed more body movements and, as a result, more disturbed sleep.

Frederic Telliez, principal investigator, and professor of neuroscience at the University of Picardie Jules Verne in Amiens, France said that sleep integrity is critical in the brain development of neonates. Disruption of sleep mechanisms by prenatal smoking exposure may predispose neonates to alterations in some physiological function (such as ventilation) and can result in long-term neurocognitive disorders.

According to the authors, abnormal sleep processes may alter compensatory responses to autonomic cardiovascular/respiratory challenge and increase the likelihood of life-threatening events later in life. Prenatal smoking exposure can lead to deficits in sustained attention and impulsivity in adolescence and a higher risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in childhood – effects that could be partially mediated by sleep changes. Prenatal smoking exposure is also highly related to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

"The developing brain is known for its plasticity and ability to reorganize in response to the stimulation provided by the postnatal environment," said Telliez. "Consequently, it is possible that these neonates, if they are not exposed to smoking after birth, could recover and develop normal sleep structures."

Forty healthy preterm neonates (postconceptional age approximately 33.9 weeks) were recruited from the neonatal intensive care unit at Amiens University Medical Center in France. Mothers were subjectively asked how many cigarettes they had smoked during their pregnancy in order to determine the level of in utero exposure to smoking. Neonates born to mothers who did not smoke at all during the pregnancy were placed in the control group; infants born to mothers who smoked less than 10 cigarettes per day were placed in the low smoking group; and those whose mothers had smoked more than 10 cigarettes per day were placed in the heavy smoking group.

The neonates born to heavy-smoking mothers had a significantly lower mean birth weight than controls. Their average weight of 2.92 pounds was 21 percent less than the average weight of controls, which was 3.69 pounds. Neonates born to mothers who smoked less than 10 cigarettes per day had a birth weight that was 11 percent lower than controls, although this result did not achieve statistical significance.

All children were free of neurological, respiratory, and cardiac disorders and had not received caffeine treatment or oxygen therapy. Neonates whose mothers reported substance abuse or passive smoking were excluded from the study. None of the infants had suffered from sleep deprivation in the 48 hours prior to the sleep recording session.

Infants received overnight polysomnographic recordings in isolated rooms. Researchers measured sleep period time, beginning at the first sleep onset and the ending at the last awakening; the percentage and frequency of wakefulness after sleep onset and total sleep time. Special attention was paid to the number and duration of body movements.

Findings indicate that even after 29.7 days without postnatal exposure to smoking or nicotine, and despite the fact that neonates in the heavy-smoking group were nearly 10 days older, infants exposed in utero to high levels of smoking still showed an altered organization of the various behavioral states.

The authors suggest that examining the neurodevelopmental trajectories of neonates exposed to maternal smoking (and of those who were not) could lead to greater understanding of potential deficits in the exposed group, better prediction of outcomes, and potentially more effective compensatory clinical interventions. Researchers also state that longitudinal studies are necessary to assess the persistence of behavioral state effects caused by prenatal smoking exposure.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

American Academy of Sleep Medicine. "High Levels Of Prenatal Smoking Exposure Affect Sleep Patterns In Preterm Neonates." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 9 December 2008. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/12/081201082005.htm>.
American Academy of Sleep Medicine. (2008, December 9). High Levels Of Prenatal Smoking Exposure Affect Sleep Patterns In Preterm Neonates. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 22, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/12/081201082005.htm
American Academy of Sleep Medicine. "High Levels Of Prenatal Smoking Exposure Affect Sleep Patterns In Preterm Neonates." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/12/081201082005.htm (accessed September 22, 2014).

Share This



More Mind & Brain News

Monday, September 22, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Could Grief Affect The Immune Systems Of Senior Citizens?

Could Grief Affect The Immune Systems Of Senior Citizens?

Newsy (Sep. 19, 2014) The study found elderly people are much more likely to become susceptible to infection than younger adults going though a similar situation. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Food Addiction Might Be Caused By PTSD

Food Addiction Might Be Caused By PTSD

Newsy (Sep. 18, 2014) New research shows that women who suffer from PTSD are three times more likely to develop a food addiction. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Corporal Punishment on Decline, Debate Renews

Corporal Punishment on Decline, Debate Renews

AP (Sep. 16, 2014) Corporal punishment in the United States is on the decline, but there is renewed debate over its use after Minnesota Vikings running back Adrian Peterson was charged with child abuse. (Sept. 16) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
FDA Eyes Skin Shocks Used at Mass. School

FDA Eyes Skin Shocks Used at Mass. School

AP (Sep. 15, 2014) The FDA is considering whether to ban devices used by the Judge Rotenberg Educational Center in Canton, Massachusetts, the only place in the country known to use electrical skin shocks as aversive conditioning for aggressive patients. (Sept. 15) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins