Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

New Clues To Pancreatic Cells' Destruction In Diabetes

Date:
February 12, 2009
Source:
Cell Press
Summary:
Researchers have found what appears to be a major culprit behind the loss of insulin-producing b cells from the pancreases of people with diabetes, a critical event in the progression of the disease.

Researchers have found what appears to be a major culprit behind the loss of insulin-producing β cells from the pancreases of people with diabetes, a critical event in the progression of the disease.

The discovery could lead to new therapies for preventing the death of β cells or restoring those that have already been lost, Kathrin Maedler and colleagues report in the February 4th issue of Cell Metabolism. The inflammatory factor they uncovered, which they call CXCL10, might also offer a warning sign of early or impending disease, they said.

" Previously, the idea was that insulin resistance makes one diabetic, but loss of β cells occurs in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes," Maedler said, noting that among those who are insulin resistant, only 10-20 percent will go on to develop type 2 diabetes due to a failure of β cells. "We've found an inflammatory marker for both types of diabetes. If we can protect cells from CXCL10 expression, we might prevent the decline in β cell mass and, with it, the disease."

Type 1 diabetes is usually diagnosed in children or young adults and stems from an inability to produce insulin. The more common type 2 diabetes generally arises later in life when the body fails to produce enough insulin or grows unresponsive to the hormone.

In type 1 diabetes, β cells are known to be destroyed by the immune system and its production of high concentrations of inflammatory signals. While scientists had floated many ideas, exactly what causes β cell loss in type 2 diabetes remains a matter of debate.

Maedler's team suspected that inflammatory factors might play a key role there as well. Indeed, inflammatory markers are found in obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes, they explained. Earlier studies also showed that low-grade inflammation and activation of the innate immune system—the body's first line of defense--can lead to beta cell failure in type II diabetes.

They've now found that the inflammatory factor CXCL10 (also known as Interferon-gamma-inducible Protein-10, or IP-10) is an important trigger for β cells' destruction. They found that hormone-producing cells isolated from patients with type 2 diabetes secrete CXCL10 and contain more than 30 times the amount of the CXCL10 message in the form of RNA than do cells from patients without diabetes.

Pancreatic sections taken from obese people without diabetes as well as those with type 1 or type 2 diabetes showed CXCL10 in the β cells, they found. Moreover, treatment of isolated human pancreatic cells with CXCL10 decreased β cell viability and impaired the production and secretion of insulin. They traced those effects of CXCL10 to a well-known pathway of the innate immune system involving a protein known as toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4).

The new data suggest a potential mechanism for the switch from β cells' proliferation to their programmed cell death, the researchers concluded. "To prevent such a progression using anti-inflammatory targets of the TLR4 signaling pathway will be of high importance to rescue the β cell from inflammation-induced self-destruction and [to] preserve β cell function and mass."

The researchers include Fabienne T. Schulthess, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany; Federico Paroni, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany; Nadine S. Sauter, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA; Luan Shu, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany; Pascale Ribaux, University Medical Center, Geneva, Switzerland; Leena Haataja, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, Robert M. Strieter, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA; Jose Oberholzer, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL; Charles C. King, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA; and Kathrin Maedler, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Cell Press. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

Cell Press. "New Clues To Pancreatic Cells' Destruction In Diabetes." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 12 February 2009. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/02/090203120716.htm>.
Cell Press. (2009, February 12). New Clues To Pancreatic Cells' Destruction In Diabetes. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 23, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/02/090203120716.htm
Cell Press. "New Clues To Pancreatic Cells' Destruction In Diabetes." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/02/090203120716.htm (accessed July 23, 2014).

Share This




More Health & Medicine News

Wednesday, July 23, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Idaho Boy Helps Brother With Disabilities Complete Triathlon

Idaho Boy Helps Brother With Disabilities Complete Triathlon

Newsy (July 23, 2014) An 8-year-old boy helped his younger brother, who has a rare genetic condition that's confined him to a wheelchair, finish a triathlon. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Stone Fruit Listeria Scare Causes Sweeping Recall

Stone Fruit Listeria Scare Causes Sweeping Recall

Newsy (July 22, 2014) The Wawona Packing Company has issued a voluntary recall on the stone fruit it distributes due to a possible Listeria outbreak. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Huge Schizophrenia Study Finds Dozens Of New Genetic Causes

Huge Schizophrenia Study Finds Dozens Of New Genetic Causes

Newsy (July 22, 2014) The 83 new genetic markers could open dozens of new avenues for schizophrenia treatment research. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
CDC Head Concerned About a Post-Antibiotic Era

CDC Head Concerned About a Post-Antibiotic Era

AP (July 22, 2014) Sounding alarms about the growing threat of antibiotic resistance, CDC Director Tom Frieden warned Tuesday if the global community does not confront the problem soon, the world will be living in a devastating post-antibiotic era. (July 22) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins