Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Eliminating Cell Receptor Prevents Infection In Animal Study

Date:
July 28, 2009
Source:
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Summary:
New research from the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia sheds light on the role of cell receptors in acting as gatekeepers for infectious viruses. By using mice genetically engineered to lack a particular receptor in heart and pancreas cells, the study team prevented infection by a common virus (Group B coxsackievirus) that causes potentially serious diseases in humans.

New research from The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia sheds light on the role of cell receptors in acting as gatekeepers for infectious viruses. By using mice genetically engineered to lack a particular receptor in heart and pancreas cells, the study team prevented infection by a common virus that causes potentially serious diseases in humans.

Related Articles


"This finding is a step to understanding how cell receptors operate in infections," said study leader Jeffrey M. Bergelson, M.D., a pediatric infectious diseases specialist at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. "Scientists have identified receptors for many viruses that cause disease," said Bergelson, "but it is not always clear whether the receptors found in cell cultures actually play a role in the disease process. In this case, we confirmed that this receptor really is involved in the disease."

The current study, publishing in Cell Host and Microbe, focused on the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), which Bergelson discovered in 1997. He previously found that, in cell culture, Group B coxsackieviruses (CVBs) manipulate cell signals to bind to the CAR.

CVBs are common in humans, usually causing minor, transient infections. However, this virus may at times cause potentially severe infections, such as myocarditis (in the heart) and viral meningitis (in the lining of the brain). CVB may also infect the pancreas, causing pancreatitis, and is suspected to contribute to childhood-onset diabetes.

Bergelson noted that his current animal study finding does not have immediate implications for changes in patient care, although discoveries in basic biology often lay the foundation for future clinical treatments in unforeseen ways.

Viruses may have interactions in living organisms that differ greatly from their interactions in cell cultures. They may attack specific tissues in humans or animals, but without binding to the cellular receptors identified in cultured cells. For instance, adenovirus infects the liver, but it bypasses identified adenovirus receptors in that organ. Instead the virus engages in complicated interactions with blood proteins and unidentified molecules in the liver.

Therefore, Bergelson and colleagues set out to discover whether CVB interacts with its receptor to cause pancreatitis and myocarditis in a special breed of mice. By manipulating genes in the pancreas and heart that generate CAR in those organs, Bergelson's team prevented the mice from forming CAR at those sites. Subsequently, those mice had virus levels in the pancreas a thousand times smaller than in control animals, and had significantly less tissue damage and inflammation. A similar protective effect occurred in the mice designed to lack CAR in their heart cells.

The results indicate that CAR is the receptor used by coxsackieviruses to infect the heart and pancreas and to cause direct injury to tissues. In some patients, recovery from coxsackievirus infection is followed by slowly progressive inflammation and heart damage. Bergelson's lab is interested in whether this long-term damage also depends on virus interaction with CAR.

Grants from the National Institutes of Health, the American Heart Association and the ACVP/STP Coalition for Veterinary Pathology Fellows supported this research. Bergelson's co-authors were Nicole L. Kallewaard, Ph.D., Lili Zhang, Jin-Wen Chen, Ph.D., and Marta Guttenberg, M.D., all from Children's Hospital; and Melissa D. Sanchez, D.V.M., Ph.D., of the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Kallewaard et al. Tissue-specific deletion of the coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) protects mice from virus-induced pancreatitis and myocarditis. Cell Host and Microbe, July 23, 2009

Cite This Page:

Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. "Eliminating Cell Receptor Prevents Infection In Animal Study." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 28 July 2009. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/07/090722120822.htm>.
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. (2009, July 28). Eliminating Cell Receptor Prevents Infection In Animal Study. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 26, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/07/090722120822.htm
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. "Eliminating Cell Receptor Prevents Infection In Animal Study." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/07/090722120822.htm (accessed October 26, 2014).

Share This



More Health & Medicine News

Sunday, October 26, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Texas Nurse Nina Pham Cured of Ebola

Texas Nurse Nina Pham Cured of Ebola

AFP (Oct. 25, 2014) — An American nurse who contracted Ebola while caring for a Liberian patient in Texas has been declared free of the virus and will leave the hospital. Duration: 01:01 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Toxin-Packed Stem Cells Used To Kill Cancer

Toxin-Packed Stem Cells Used To Kill Cancer

Newsy (Oct. 25, 2014) — A Harvard University Research Team created genetically engineered stem cells that are able to kill cancer cells, while leaving other cells unharmed. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
IKEA Desk Converts From Standing to Sitting With One Button

IKEA Desk Converts From Standing to Sitting With One Button

Buzz60 (Oct. 24, 2014) — IKEA is out with a new convertible desk that can convert from a sitting desk to a standing one with just the push of a button. Jen Markham explains. Video provided by Buzz60
Powered by NewsLook.com
Ebola Protective Suits Being Made in China

Ebola Protective Suits Being Made in China

AFP (Oct. 24, 2014) — A factory in China is busy making Ebola protective suits for healthcare workers and others fighting the spread of the virus. Duration: 00:38 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories

 

Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins