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Ancient Oceans Offer New Insight Into Origins Of Animal Life

Date:
September 10, 2009
Source:
Newcastle University
Summary:
Analysis of a rock type found only in the world's oldest oceans has shed new light on how large animals first got a foothold on Earth.

In prehistoric times, Earth experienced two periods of large increases and fluctuations in the oxygen level of the atmosphere and oceans. These fluctuations also led to an explosion of multicellular organisms in the oceans, which are the predecessors for life as we know it today.
Credit: iStockphoto/Sebastian Meckelmann

Analysis of a rock type found only in the world's oldest oceans has shed new light on how large animals first got a foothold on Earth.

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A scientific team led by Professor Robert Frei at the University of Copenhagen in Denmark, and including scientists from Newcastle University, UK, and universities in Uruguay and Southern Denmark, have for the first time managed to plot the rise and fall of oxygen levels in the Earth's atmosphere over the last 3.8 billion years.

By analysing the isotopes of chromium in iron-rich sediments formed in the ancient oceans, the team has found that a rise in atmospheric oxygen levels 580 million years ago was closely followed by the evolution of animal life.

Published today in the academic journal Nature, the data offers new insight into how animal life – and ultimately humans – first came to roam the planet.

"Because animals evolved in the sea, most previous research has focussed on oceanic oxygen levels," explains Newcastle University's Dr Simon Poulton, one of the authors of the paper.

"Our research confirms for the first time that a rise in atmospheric oxygen was the driving force for oxygenation of the oceans 580 million years ago, and that this was the catalyst for the evolution of large complex animals."

The study

Distinctive chromium isotope signals occur when continental rocks are altered and weathered as a result of oxygen levels rising in the atmosphere.

The chromium released by this weathering is then washed into the seas and deposited in the deepest oceans - trapped in iron-rich rocks on the sea bed.

Using this new data, the research team has not only been able to establish the trigger for the evolution of animals, but have also demonstrated that oxygen began to pulse into the atmosphere earlier than previously thought.

"Oxygen levels actually began to rise 2.8 billion years ago" explains Dr Poulton.

"But instead of this rise being steady and gradual over time, what we saw in our data was a very unstable situation with short-lived episodes of free oxygen in the atmosphere early in Earth's history, followed by plummeting levels around 2 billion years ago.

"It was not until a second rise in atmospheric oxygen 580 million years ago that larger complex animals were able to get a foothold on the Earth."


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Newcastle University. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Robert Frei, Claudio Gaucher, Simon W. Poulton & Don E. Canfield. Fluctuations in Precambrian atmospheric oxygenation recorded by chromium isotopes. Nature, 2009; 461 (7261): 250 DOI: 10.1038/nature08266

Cite This Page:

Newcastle University. "Ancient Oceans Offer New Insight Into Origins Of Animal Life." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 10 September 2009. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/09/090909133020.htm>.
Newcastle University. (2009, September 10). Ancient Oceans Offer New Insight Into Origins Of Animal Life. ScienceDaily. Retrieved March 29, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/09/090909133020.htm
Newcastle University. "Ancient Oceans Offer New Insight Into Origins Of Animal Life." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/09/090909133020.htm (accessed March 29, 2015).

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