Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Haiti cholera epidemic could have been blunted with use of mobile stockpile of oral vaccine

Date:
April 11, 2011
Source:
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
Summary:
Had a large stockpile of oral cholera vaccine been available and deployed to inoculate the majority of Haitians most at risk after the outbreak following last year's earthquake, the illness and death from the cholera epidemic could have been reduced by about half, according to new research.

Had a large stockpile of oral cholera vaccine been available and deployed to inoculate the majority of Haitians most at risk after the outbreak following last year's earthquake, the illness and death from the cholera epidemic could have been reduced by about half, according to new research.

The findings, by Ira Longini, Ph.D., and colleagues in the Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division of Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, are published in the April 11, 2011 early edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Using computer models that replicated the spread of the epidemic that began last October, the researchers simulated various proactive and reactive vaccination strategies. They found that vaccinating 50 percent to70 percent of people in targeted, high-risk areas after the disease outbreak would reduce morbidity and mortality by roughly 50 percent. The amount of vaccine in this scenario would be equivalent to inoculating about 30 percent of a country's total population.

"We show that while you cannot completely control epidemic cholera with vaccines alone, you can certainly greatly reduce the number of cases and deaths, especially if you combine it with some pretty modest sanitation interventions," said Longini, a member of the Center for Statistics and Quantitative Infectious Diseases at the Hutchinson Center and professor of biostatistics at the University of Washington School of Public Health.

Longini and Hutchinson Center coauthor M. Elizabeth Halloran, Ph.D., and lead author Dennis Chao, Ph.D., recommend that a comprehensive global plan be developed for the use of cholera vaccine to treat epidemic cholera. Distribution could be coordinated through global and regional public health organizations such as the World Health Organization and Pan American Health Organization.

The authors note that the current cost of the two existing vaccines, at $5 and $1.50 per dose, make a good case for international investment in production and distribution of a stockpile.

Currently, cholera vaccines are in short supply and little is known about effective vaccination strategies for epidemic cholera, according to the study.

"We expect cholera epidemics to appear in other regions of the developing world and we believe that we should have a plan in place to mitigate them" said Dennis Chao.

The computer models used by the researchers showed that randomly pre-vaccinating a fraction of the population before an epidemic begins can reduce the number of cholera cases roughly in proportion to the number of individuals vaccinated and delay the epidemic peak. However, this is not as effective in combating an epidemic outbreak as concentrating efforts in regions at risk of high exposure to cholera, although it is difficult to know in advance where there regions would be.

"Further research will be needed for the effective identification of high-exposure areas in developing countries where cholera vaccines can be effectively targeted when needed," said Halloran.

In the case of Haiti, the 2010 epidemic occurred after a 100-year absence of cholera in the country. By mid-February 2011, more than 234,000 cases and 4,500 deaths had been reported. Cholera is a waterborne disease that affects 3 million to 5 million people annually, mostly in the developing world.

"The most recent example of Haiti demonstrates that areas that have not seen cholera in decades can be vulnerable under the combination of poverty, lack of or destruction of infrastructure, weather and natural disasters, conditions in which cholera thrives," the authors wrote.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Dennis L. Chao, M. Elizabeth Halloran, Ira M. Longini, Jr. Vaccination strategies for epidemic cholera in Haiti with implications for the developing world. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2011; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1102149108

Cite This Page:

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. "Haiti cholera epidemic could have been blunted with use of mobile stockpile of oral vaccine." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 11 April 2011. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/04/110411152516.htm>.
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. (2011, April 11). Haiti cholera epidemic could have been blunted with use of mobile stockpile of oral vaccine. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 25, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/04/110411152516.htm
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. "Haiti cholera epidemic could have been blunted with use of mobile stockpile of oral vaccine." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/04/110411152516.htm (accessed July 25, 2014).

Share This




More Science & Society News

Friday, July 25, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

New Painkiller Designed To Discourage Abuse: Will It Work?

New Painkiller Designed To Discourage Abuse: Will It Work?

Newsy (July 24, 2014) The FDA approved Targiniq ER on Wednesday, a painkiller designed to keep users from abusing it. Like any new medication, however, it has doubters. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Condemned Man's US Execution Takes Nearly Two Hours

Condemned Man's US Execution Takes Nearly Two Hours

AFP (July 24, 2014) America's death penalty debate raged Thursday after it took nearly two hours for Arizona to execute a prisoner who lost a Supreme Court battle challenging the experimental lethal drug cocktail. Duration: 00:55 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Bill Gates: Health, Agriculture Key to Africa's Development

Bill Gates: Health, Agriculture Key to Africa's Development

AFP (July 24, 2014) Health and agriculture development are key if African countries are to overcome poverty and grow, US software billionaire Bill Gates said Thursday, as he received an honourary degree in Ethiopia. Duration: 00:36 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
China's Ageing Millions Look Forward to Bleak Future

China's Ageing Millions Look Forward to Bleak Future

AFP (July 24, 2014) China's elderly population is expanding so quickly that children struggle to look after them, pushing them to do something unexpected in Chinese society- move their parents into a nursing home. Duration: 02:07 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

    Health News

      Environment News

        Technology News



          Save/Print:
          Share:

          Free Subscriptions


          Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

          Get Social & Mobile


          Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

          Have Feedback?


          Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
          Mobile: iPhone Android Web
          Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
          Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
          Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins