Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Skin sentry cells promote distinct immune responses

Date:
July 21, 2011
Source:
Cell Press
Summary:
A new study reveals that just as different soldiers in the field have different jobs, subsets of a type of immune cell that polices the barriers of the body can promote unique and opposite immune responses against the same type of infection. The research enhances our understanding of the early stages of the immune response and may have important implications for vaccinations and treatment of autoimmune diseases.

A new study reveals that just as different soldiers in the field have different jobs, subsets of a type of immune cell that polices the barriers of the body can promote unique and opposite immune responses against the same type of infection. The research, published online on July 21st by Cell Press in the journal Immunity, enhances our understanding of the early stages of the immune response and may have important implications for vaccinations and treatment of autoimmune diseases.

Related Articles


Dendritic cells serve as sentries of the immune system and are stationed at the body's "outposts," like the skin, where they are likely to encounter invading pathogens. When dendritic cells encounter pathogen-associated antigens (molecules that trigger an immune response), they process the antigen and present it to other responding immune cells in an effort to inititate a cellular cascade resulting in clearance of the pathogen. This is a critical part of the immune response because many responding immune cells cannot "see" antigen and initiate the proper protective response unless the antigen is properly presented by a dendritic cell.

"There are at least three different types of dendritic cells in the skin," explains senior study author, Dr. Daniel Kaplan from the University of Minnesota. "Despite studies examining these cells, the basic question of whether skin resident dendritic cells have unique or redundant functions remains unresolved." Dr. Kaplan and colleagues developed a model of yeast infection that is limited to the superficial layer of the skin and studied antigen-specific immune responses in mice lacking specific subsets of skin dendritic cells.

The researchers discovered that direct presentation of antigen by one type of dendritic cell, Langerhans cells, was necessary and sufficient for the generation of antigen-specific T helper-17 (Th17) cells but not the generation of cytotoxic lymphocytes (CTL). T helper cells play a key role in orchestrating the immune response, whereas CTLs can directly destroy infected cells. While Th17 cells play productive roles in indirectly eliminating pathogens when their response is dysregulated, they have been implicated in autoimmune disease, Meanwhile, another subset of dendritic cells was required for the generation of antigen-specific CTLs and inhibited the ability of other dendritic cells to promote Th17 cell responses.

"Our work demonstrates that dendritic cells in the skin promote distinct and opposing antigen-specific responses," concludes Dr. Kaplan. "This has important implications for vaccination strategies that selectively target dendritic cell populations. In addition, the requirement for Langerhans cells in the development of Th17 cells suggests these cells may participate in the early pathogenesis of Th17 cell-mediated skin diseases such as psoriasis."


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Cell Press. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Botond Z. Igyártó, Krystal Haley, Daniela Ortner, Aleh Bobr, Maryam Gerami-Nejad, Brian T. Edelson, Sandra M. Zurawski, Bernard Malissen, Gerard Zurawski, Judith Berman, and Daniel H. Kaplan. Skin-Resident Murine Dendritic Cell Subsets Promote Distinct and Opposing Antigen-Specific T Helper Cell Responses. Immunity, 2011; DOI: 10.1016/j.immuni.2011.06.005

Cite This Page:

Cell Press. "Skin sentry cells promote distinct immune responses." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 21 July 2011. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/07/110721121543.htm>.
Cell Press. (2011, July 21). Skin sentry cells promote distinct immune responses. ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 18, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/07/110721121543.htm
Cell Press. "Skin sentry cells promote distinct immune responses." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/07/110721121543.htm (accessed December 18, 2014).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Health & Medicine News

Thursday, December 18, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Kids Die While Under Protective Services

Kids Die While Under Protective Services

AP (Dec. 18, 2014) — As part of a six-month investigation of child maltreatment deaths, the AP found that hundreds of deaths from horrific abuse and neglect could have been prevented. AP's Haven Daley reports. (Dec. 18) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Dads-To-Be Also Experience Hormone Changes During Pregnancy

Dads-To-Be Also Experience Hormone Changes During Pregnancy

Newsy (Dec. 18, 2014) — A study from University of Michigan researchers found that expectant fathers see a decrease in testosterone as the baby's birth draws near. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Prenatal Exposure To Pollution Might Increase Autism Risk

Prenatal Exposure To Pollution Might Increase Autism Risk

Newsy (Dec. 18, 2014) — Harvard researchers found children whose mothers were exposed to high pollution levels in the third trimester were twice as likely to develop autism. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
UN: Up to One Million Facing Hunger in Ebola-Hit Countries

UN: Up to One Million Facing Hunger in Ebola-Hit Countries

AFP (Dec. 17, 2014) — Border closures, quarantines and crop losses in West African nations battling the Ebola virus could lead to as many as one million people going hungry, UN food agencies said on Wednesday. Duration: 00:52 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories

 

Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins