Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

When and how to toilet train children

Date:
August 9, 2011
Source:
Canadian Medical Association Journal
Summary:
Parents often ask their doctors for advice on toilet training young children, and a new article summarizes current approaches and evidence to help physicians respond to these queries.

Parents often ask their doctors for advice on toilet training young children, and a new article in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal) summarizes current approaches and evidence to help physicians respond to these queries.

"Toilet training is felt to be a natural process that occurs with development, yet very little scientific information is available for physicians who care for children," writes Dr. Darcie Kiddoo, Divisions of Pediatric Surgery and Urology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta. "In reality, toilet training is a complex process that can be affected by anatomic, physiologic and behavioural conditions."

Methods have varied over the last century from passive and unstructured to punishment-oriented and regimented. The current child-centred approach has resulted in children being toilet trained at an older age than previously. Other approaches include assisted toilet training in babies, operant conditioning with rewards for dryness and punishment for accidents, and a four-step method involving increased fluid intake, scheduled toileting, positive reinforcement and overcorrection of accidents.

Toilet training should be started when both the child and parents are ready. Both the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Canadian Paediatric Society recommend starting when a child is 18 months old and shows interest in the process.

There is some evidence that indicates more negative outcomes in children who started toilet training late (after age 2 or 3 in various studies.) Negative outcomes associated with toilet training include refusal to void stool, hiding while defecating, leakage and daytime wetting or urinary tract infections. However, few studies have addressed the link between methods and adverse outcomes.

"In the absence of evidence, the treating physician must rely on expert opinion and should turn to the Canadian Paediatric Society and the American Academy of Pediatrics for advice for patients that is unlikely to cause harm," concludes the author.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Canadian Medical Association Journal. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Darcie A. Kiddoo. Toilet training children: when to start and how to train. CMAJ, August 8, 2011 DOI: 10.1503/cmaj.110830

Cite This Page:

Canadian Medical Association Journal. "When and how to toilet train children." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 9 August 2011. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/08/110808124236.htm>.
Canadian Medical Association Journal. (2011, August 9). When and how to toilet train children. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 23, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/08/110808124236.htm
Canadian Medical Association Journal. "When and how to toilet train children." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/08/110808124236.htm (accessed September 23, 2014).

Share This



More Health & Medicine News

Tuesday, September 23, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Liberia Pleads for Help to Fight Ebola

Liberia Pleads for Help to Fight Ebola

AP (Sep. 22, 2014) Liberia's finance minister is urging the international community to quickly follow through on pledges of cash to battle Ebola. Bodies are piling up in the capital Monrovia as the nation awaits more help. (Sept. 22) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Ebola Doctor Says Border Controls Critical

Ebola Doctor Says Border Controls Critical

AP (Sep. 22, 2014) A Florida doctor who helped fight the expanding Ebola outbreak in West Africa says the disease can be stopped, but only if nations quickly step up their response and make border control a priority. (Sept. 22) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Global Ebola Aid Increasing But Critics Say It's Late

Global Ebola Aid Increasing But Critics Say It's Late

Newsy (Sep. 21, 2014) More than 100 tons of medical supplies were sent to West Africa on Saturday, but aid workers say the global response is still sluggish. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Sierra Leone in Lockdown to Control Ebola

Sierra Leone in Lockdown to Control Ebola

AP (Sep. 21, 2014) Sierra Leone residents remained in lockdown on Saturday as part of a massive effort to confine millions of people to their homes in a bid to stem the biggest Ebola outbreak in history. (Sept. 20) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins