Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

New research reveals brain's protection mechanism during stroke

Date:
August 18, 2011
Source:
University of Bristol
Summary:
Neuroscientists have identified a natural protection mechanism in some of the brain's nerve cells during the onset of stroke. The findings could be used to develop treatments to protect other nerve cell types responsible for speech and movement.

Neuroscientists have identified a natural protection mechanism in some of the brain's nerve cells during the onset of stroke. The findings, published Aug. 17 in the Journal of Neuroscience, could be used to develop treatments to protect other nerve cell types responsible for speech and movement.

Stroke -- the third largest cause of death in the UK -- causes disruption to the blood supply to the brain, depriving nerve cells of oxygen and nutrients. This leads to the death of nerve cells and the consequent loss of the brain's cognitive functions such as speech and movement. However, not all nerve cells are equally susceptible to stroke-induced damage.

The research, led by Dr Jack Mellor from the University of Bristol, examined two types of nerve cell in a part of the brain called the hippocampus -- the region linked to memory and navigation. One of these cell types, the CA1 cell, is highly susceptible to damage after stroke whereas the other, the CA3 cell, is much more resistant despite many other similarities between the two cell types.

Dr Mellor, Senior Lecturer in the University's School of Physiology and Pharmacology, said: "We hope that if we can understand why some nerve cells are resistant to stroke damage we may be able to develop strategies to protect those cells that are sensitive."

The researchers found that the CA3 cells possess a mechanism for reducing their susceptibility during, and immediately after, a laboratory-based model for stroke. This mechanism involved making the CA3 cells less sensitive to the neurotransmitter glutamate, which is released in large quantities during stroke, by removing glutamate receptor proteins from the surface of these cells.

The removal of glutamate receptors was triggered by adenosine A3 receptors that are activated by very high levels of the neurotransmitter adenosine found only during stroke conditions. Interestingly, CA1 cells that are susceptible to stroke damage did not have adenosine A3 receptors and did not respond to the stroke model by removing surface glutamate receptors. The findings reveal that CA3 cells possess a mechanism for neuronal protection during stroke.

Dr Mellor added: "Historically, stroke has been very difficult to treat because of its unpredictability and the need to administer drugs within minutes of the onset of a stroke. These problems will not be overcome by our research but our findings do reveal a natural protection mechanism in some nerve cells, which may be useful in developing treatments to protect other nerve cell types."

The research, entitled 'Oxygen/glucose Deprivation Induces a Reduction in Synaptic AMPA Receptors on Hippocampal CA3 Neurons Mediated by mGluR1 and adenosine A3 Receptors', is funded by the Medical Research Council (MRC) and the Wellcome Trust and published in the Journal of Neuroscience.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of Bristol. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. S. H. Dennis, N. Jaafari, H. Cimarosti, J. G. Hanley, J. M. Henley, J. R. Mellor. Oxygen/Glucose Deprivation Induces a Reduction in Synaptic AMPA Receptors on Hippocampal CA3 Neurons Mediated by mGluR1 and Adenosine A3 Receptors. Journal of Neuroscience, 2011; 31 (33): 11941 DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1183-11.2011

Cite This Page:

University of Bristol. "New research reveals brain's protection mechanism during stroke." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 18 August 2011. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/08/110816171731.htm>.
University of Bristol. (2011, August 18). New research reveals brain's protection mechanism during stroke. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 2, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/08/110816171731.htm
University of Bristol. "New research reveals brain's protection mechanism during stroke." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/08/110816171731.htm (accessed September 2, 2014).

Share This




More Mind & Brain News

Tuesday, September 2, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Can You Train Your Brain To Eat Healthy?

Can You Train Your Brain To Eat Healthy?

Newsy (Sep. 1, 2014) New research says if you condition yourself to eat healthy foods, eventually you'll crave them instead of junk food. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Coffee Then Napping: The (New) Key To Alertness

Coffee Then Napping: The (New) Key To Alertness

Newsy (Aug. 30, 2014) Researchers say having a cup of coffee then taking a nap is more effective than a nap or coffee alone. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Young Entrepreneurs Get $100,000, If They Quit School

Young Entrepreneurs Get $100,000, If They Quit School

AFP (Aug. 29, 2014) Twenty college-age students are getting 100,000 dollars from a Silicon Valley leader and a chance to live in San Francisco in order to work on the start-up project of their dreams, but they have to quit school first. Duration: 02:20 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Baby Babbling Might Lead To Faster Language Development

Baby Babbling Might Lead To Faster Language Development

Newsy (Aug. 29, 2014) A new study suggests babies develop language skills more quickly if their parents imitate the babies' sounds and expressions and talk to them often. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins