Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Cancer drug cisplatin found to bind like glue in cellular RNA

Date:
November 21, 2011
Source:
University of Oregon
Summary:
An anti-cancer drug used extensively in chemotherapy binds pervasively to RNA -- up to 20-fold more than it does to DNA, a surprise finding that suggests new targeting approaches might be useful, according to researchers.

An anti-cancer drug used extensively in chemotherapy binds pervasively to RNA -- up to 20-fold more than it does to DNA, a surprise finding that suggests new targeting approaches might be useful, according to University of Oregon researchers.

Related Articles


Medical researchers have long known that cisplatin, a platinum compound used to fight tumors in nearly 70 percent of all human cancers, attaches to DNA. Its attachment to RNA had been assumed to be a fleeting thing, says UO chemist Victoria J. DeRose, who decided to take a closer look due to recent discoveries of critical RNA-based cell processes.

"We're looking at RNA as a new drug target," she said. "We think this is an important discovery because we know that RNA is very different in tumors than it is in regular healthy cells. We thought that the platinum would bind to RNA, but that the RNA would just degrade and the platinum would be shunted out of the cell. In fact, we found that the platinum was retained on the RNA and also bound quickly, being found on the RNA as fast as one hour after treatment."

The National Institutes of Health- and UO-funded research is detailed in a paper placed online ahead of regular publication in ACS Chemical Biology, a journal of the American Chemical Society. Co-authors with DeRose, a member of the UO chemistry department and Institute of Molecular Biology, were UO doctoral students Alethia A. Hostetter and Maire F. Osborn.

The researchers applied cisplatin to rapidly dividing and RNA-rich yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a much-used eukaryotic model organism in biology). They then extracted the DNA and RNA from the treated cells and studied the density of platinum per nucleotide with mass spectrometry. Specific locations of the metal ions were further hunted down with detailed sequencing methods. They found that the platinum was two to three times denser on DNA but that there was a much higher whole-cell concentration on RNA. Moreover, the drug bound like glue to specific sections of RNA.

DeRose is now pursuing the ramifications of the findings. "Can this drug be made to be more or less reactive to specific RNAs?" she said. "Might we be able to go after these new targets and thereby reduce the drug's toxicity?"

While cisplatin is effective in reducing tumor size, its use often is halted because of toxicity issues, including renal insufficiency, tinnitus, anemia, gastrointestinal problems and nerve damage.

The extensive roles of RNA have come under intense scrutiny since completion of the human genome opened new windows on DNA, life's building blocks. It had been assumed that RNA was simply a messenger that coded for protein activity. New technologies, DeRose said, have shown that a vast amount of RNA performs an amazing level of different functions in gene expression, controlling it in specific ways during development or disease, particularly in cancer cells.

In this project, DeRose's team only explored cisplatin's binding on two forms of RNA: ribosomes, where the highest concentration of the drug was found; and messenger RNA. There are more areas to be looked at, said DeRose, whose group initially developed experience using and mapping platinum's activity as a mimic for other metals in her research on RNA enzymes.

DeRose is now planning work with UO colleague Hui Zong, a biologist studying how cancer emerges, to extend the research into mouse cells to see if the findings in yeast RNA hold up. An additional collaboration with UO chemist Michael Haley involves the creation of new platinum-based drugs with "reaction handles" that will allow researchers to easily pull the experimental drugs out of cells, while still attached to their biological targets. New developments in 'deep' RNA sequencing, available through the UO's Genomic Core Facilities, could then provide a much broader view of platinum's preferred resting sites in the cell.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of Oregon. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Alethia A. Hostetter, Maire F. Osborn, Victoria J. DeRose. RNA-Pt Adducts Following Cisplatin Treatment ofSaccharomyces cerevisiae. ACS Chemical Biology, 2011; 111115133224009 DOI: 10.1021/cb200279p

Cite This Page:

University of Oregon. "Cancer drug cisplatin found to bind like glue in cellular RNA." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 21 November 2011. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/11/111121142444.htm>.
University of Oregon. (2011, November 21). Cancer drug cisplatin found to bind like glue in cellular RNA. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 24, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/11/111121142444.htm
University of Oregon. "Cancer drug cisplatin found to bind like glue in cellular RNA." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/11/111121142444.htm (accessed October 24, 2014).

Share This



More Health & Medicine News

Friday, October 24, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Breakfast Debate: To Eat Or Not To Eat?

Breakfast Debate: To Eat Or Not To Eat?

Newsy (Oct. 23, 2014) Conflicting studies published in the same week re-ignited the debate over whether we should be eating breakfast. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Ebola Fears Keep Guinea Hospitals Empty

Ebola Fears Keep Guinea Hospitals Empty

AP (Oct. 23, 2014) Fears of Ebola are keeping doctors and patients alike away from hospitals in the West African nation of Guinea. (Oct. 23) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Despite Rising Death Toll, Many Survive Ebola

Despite Rising Death Toll, Many Survive Ebola

AP (Oct. 23, 2014) The family of a Dallas nurse infected with Ebola in the US says doctors can no longer detect the virus in her. Despite the mounting death toll in West Africa, there are survivors there too. (Oct. 23) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Orthodontist Mom Jennifer Salzer on the Best Time for Braces

Orthodontist Mom Jennifer Salzer on the Best Time for Braces

Working Mother (Oct. 22, 2014) Is your child ready? Video provided by Working Mother
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins