New research reveals dinosaurs may have faced an unexpected hazard: fire. The findings are published in the journal Cretaceous Research by researchers from Royal Holloway, University of London and the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago who have revealed that during the Cretaceous (145-65 million years ago) fire was much more widespread than previously thought.
The researchers traced fire activity in the fossil record through the occurrence of charcoal deposits, compiling a global database for this time interval. "Charcoal is the remnant of the plants that were burnt and is easily preserved in the fossil record," explains Professor Andrew C. Scott, the project leader from the Department of Earth Sciences at Royal Holloway.
This period was a greenhouse world where global temperatures were higher than those of today. Lightning strikes would have been the main trigger for these wildfires, but this period was also one when atmospheric oxygen levels were high. Ian Glasspool from the Field Museum and one of the report authors, points out: "This was why fires were so widespread, as at such periods plants with higher moisture contents could burn than is currently the case."
The prevalence of fires throughout the Cretaceous would have created a more disturbed environment. Professor Andrew Scott highlights: "Until now, few have taken into account the impact that fires would have had on the environment, not only destroying the vegetation but also exacerbating run-off and erosion and promoting subsequent flooding following storms." These past events may give some insights into how increased fire activity today may impact the world we live in.
The research also shows that charcoal may often be associated with dinosaur deposits. Sarah Brown, a PhD student on the project and lead author, comments: "When I first started my research in Dinosaur Provincial Park in Canada nobody had seen any charcoal but quickly I was able to see it everywhere, including associated with dinosaur bone beds, it was incredible." The researchers are now assessing the impact that these fires would have had upon dinosaur communities.
- Sarah A.E. Brown, Andrew C. Scott, Ian J. Glasspool, Margaret E. Collinson. Cretaceous wildfires and their impact on the Earth system. Cretaceous Research, 2012; DOI: 10.1016/j.cretres.2012.02.008
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