Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Decline in HIV deaths for most men, women by race/ethnicity, education, U.S. study finds

Date:
October 8, 2012
Source:
JAMA and Archives Journals
Summary:
Overall death rates due to human immunodeficiency virus infection declined over time between 1993 and 2007 for most men and women by race/ethnicity and educational levels, with the largest absolute decreases for nonwhites, but rates remain high among blacks, according to a new U.S. study.

Overall death rates due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection declined over time between 1993 and 2007 for most men and women by race/ethnicity and educational levels, with the largest absolute decreases for nonwhites, but rates remain high among blacks, according to a report published Online First by Archives of Internal Medicine, a JAMA Network publication.

Widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has resulted in steep declines in HIV-related mortality, but not all groups have benefited equally from its availability. Many factors influence racial and ethnic disparities in HIV mortality rates, including differentials in the prevalence of HIV infection, delays in diagnosis and an extended period before the initiation of HAART treatment, according to the study background.

Edgar P. Simard, Ph.D., M.P.H., of the American Cancer Society, and colleagues examined trends in HIV mortality by individual levels of educational attainment as a proxy for socioeconomic status (SES) and by sex and race/ethnicity. The authors' analysis included 91,307 deaths due to HIV from 1993-2007 among individuals 25 to 64 years of age in 26 states reported to the National Vital Statistics System.

"In this large population-based analysis of trends in HIV death rates, we document overall significant, yet different, absolute and relative declines in mortality by sex, race/ethnicity and individual-level educational attainment as a proxy for SES. There were strong declines for all groups except for non-Hispanic black women of low SES," the authors note. "Relative declines were generally greater for those with higher educational attainment and for non-Hispanic whites, and these trends resulted in widening gaps between these groups."

Among men with the most education, mortality rates per 100,000 population decreased from 117.89 to 15.35 in blacks vs. from 26.42 to 1.79 in whites. Rates were unchanged for the least-educated black women (26.76 during 2005-2007) and remained high for similarly educated black men (52.71), the study results show.

"Notably, HIV death rates among non-Hispanic black men with 12 or fewer years of education (52.71 per 100,000 population in 2005-2007) were higher than rates among similarly educated non-Hispanic white men before widely available HIV therapies (25.77 per 100,000 population in 1993-1995)," the authors note.

Among men, the disparity rate ratio (comparing the least and the most educated) increased from 1.04 during 1993-1995 to 3.43 during 2005-2007 for blacks and from 0.98 to 2.82 for whites, according to the results.

"We documented substantial absolute declines in HIV death rates during 1993-2007 for all groups, although relative declines were greatest among those with the highest vs. lowest levels of SES, leading to widening inequalities. Notably, HIV death rates remained markedly high among non-Hispanic black men of all SES levels and were unchanged for non-Hispanic black women in the lowest SES strata," the authors conclude. "These findings suggest the need for focused interventions and resources to facilitate the identification of high-risk individuals, as well as entry and retention into care for these most vulnerable groups affected by the HIV epidemic in the United States."

Commentary: HIV Racial Disparities

In an invited commentary, William Cunningham, M.D., M.P.H., of the University of California, Los Angeles, writes: "Currently, there is great excitement and hope in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention, care and research communities regarding the conceivable end of AIDS, although not the end of HIV."

"However, there is a strong countercurrent to the enthusiasm for the prospects of a person living with HIV in the United States. That is because disparities among people of color have been observed for more than a decade during the era of highly active [antiretroviral therapy] (ART) (HAART)," Cunningham continues.

"The article by Simard et al adds solid evidence based on individual-level data in the United States showing that between the period 1993 to 1995 (before HAART) and the period 2005 to 2007 (after HAART), mortality decreased for most men and women by race/ethnicity and educational levels. Also, the greatest absolute decreases were for African Americans and Latinos owing to higher baseline rates. However, of most importance for this discussion, among African Americans in the least educated group (i.e., the lowest SES group), mortality remained the highest. As the authors note, more must be done to eliminate continuing racial/ethnic and SES disparities in HIV mortality in the United States," Cunningham concludes.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by JAMA and Archives Journals. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal References:

  1. Simard EP, Fransua M, Naishadham D, Jemal A. The Influence of Sex, Race/Ethnicity, and Educational Attainment on Human Immunodeficiency Virus Death Rates Among Adults, 1993-2007. Archives of Internal Medicine, 2012; DOI: 10.1001/archinternmed.2012.4508
  2. Cunningham W. HIV Racial Disparities: Time to Close the Gaps. Archives of Internal Medicine, 2012; DOI: 10.1001/2013.jamainternmed.613

Cite This Page:

JAMA and Archives Journals. "Decline in HIV deaths for most men, women by race/ethnicity, education, U.S. study finds." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 8 October 2012. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/10/121008161856.htm>.
JAMA and Archives Journals. (2012, October 8). Decline in HIV deaths for most men, women by race/ethnicity, education, U.S. study finds. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 29, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/10/121008161856.htm
JAMA and Archives Journals. "Decline in HIV deaths for most men, women by race/ethnicity, education, U.S. study finds." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/10/121008161856.htm (accessed July 29, 2014).

Share This




More Health & Medicine News

Tuesday, July 29, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Deadly Ebola Virus Threatens West Africa

Deadly Ebola Virus Threatens West Africa

AP (July 28, 2014) West African nations and international health organizations are working to contain the largest Ebola outbreak in history. It's one of the deadliest diseases known to man, but the CDC says it's unlikely to spread in the U.S. (July 28) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
$15B Deal on Vets' Health Care Reached

$15B Deal on Vets' Health Care Reached

AP (July 28, 2014) A bipartisan deal to improve veterans health care would authorize at least $15 billion in emergency spending to fix a veterans program scandalized by long patient wait times and falsified records. (July 28) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Two Americans Contract Ebola in Liberia

Two Americans Contract Ebola in Liberia

Reuters - US Online Video (July 28, 2014) Two American aid workers in Liberia test positive for Ebola while working to combat the deadliest outbreak of the virus ever. Linda So reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Traditional African Dishes Teach Healthy Eating

Traditional African Dishes Teach Healthy Eating

AP (July 28, 2014) Classes are being offered nationwide to encourage African Americans to learn about cooking fresh foods based on traditional African cuisine. The program is trying to combat obesity, heart disease and other ailments often linked to diet. (July 28) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins