Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Rotavirus vaccine given to newborns in africa is effective

Date:
June 17, 2013
Source:
Mayo Clinic
Summary:
Scientists have shown that a vaccine given to newborns is at least 60 percent effective against rotavirus in Ghana. Rotavirus causes fever, vomiting and diarrhea, which in infants can cause severe dehydration. In developed nations, the condition often results in an emergency room visit or an occasional hospitalization, but is rarely fatal. In developing countries, however, rotavirus-related illness causes approximately 500,000 deaths per year.

Mayo Clinic and other researchers have shown that a vaccine given to newborns is at least 60 percent effective against rotavirus in Ghana. Rotavirus causes fever, vomiting and diarrhea, which in infants can cause severe dehydration. In developed nations, the condition often results in an emergency room visit or an occasional hospitalization, but is rarely fatal. In developing countries, however, rotavirus-related illness causes approximately 500,000 deaths per year. The findings appear this week in the Journal of Infectious Diseases.

Currently, there is no neonatal rotavirus vaccine available and infants do not receive their first dose of a rotavirus vaccine until they are approximately 2 months old, leaving younger infants at serious risk of rotavirus infection. In the study, the first of two doses was administered within the first 29 days of life (neonatal dosing), and the second dose before 60 days of age.

"For the first time in a large-scale study, we have demonstrated that protection against rotavirus gastroenteritis can be achieved earlier in life," says co-author and pediatrician Robert M. Jacobson, M.D., of the Mayo Clinic Children's Center. "The next step should be additional studies in neonates to provide earlier protection against life-threatening rotavirus diarrhea. The rotavirus vaccines used in America and Europe are administered later -- when babies are 2 to 4 months old -- but younger infants also contract the virus in the first two months of life."

Two vaccines serve as standard protection in developed countries, but are not especially effective in African or Asian countries, says Dr. Jacobson. Besides, he says, protection is also needed from birth due to the widespread risk of the virus.

"There is a huge protection gap right now in the first months of life," says Dr. Jacobson. "This study points to a clear and practical solution."

In Ghana, 998 newborns were selected for the randomized, double-blind, placebo trial from two of the poorest parts of the country. Half received the oral reassortant rotavirus tetravalent vaccine (RRV-TV) in the first two months of life, half received a placebo. Results showed a significant response in parameters of efficacy, safety and immune impact of the vaccine.

The study was funded by the International Medical Foundation. Co-authors include George Armah, Ph.D., University of Ghana; Albert Kapikian, M.D., National Institutes of Health; Timo Vesikari, M.D., Ph.D., University of Tampere, Finland; Nigel Cunliffe, M.D., Ph.D., University of Liverpool, U.K.; D. Bruce Burlington, M.D., Gaithersburg, Md.; and Leonard Ruiz Jr., Ph.D., International Medica Foundation, Rochester.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Mayo Clinic. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. G. E. Armah, A. Z. Kapikian, T. Vesikari, N. Cunliffe, R. M. Jacobson, D. B. Burlington, L. P. Ruiz. Efficacy, Immunogenicity, and Safety of Two Doses of a Tetravalent Rotavirus Vaccine RRV-TV in Ghana With the First Dose Administered During the Neonatal Period. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2013; DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jit174

Cite This Page:

Mayo Clinic. "Rotavirus vaccine given to newborns in africa is effective." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 17 June 2013. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/06/130617142039.htm>.
Mayo Clinic. (2013, June 17). Rotavirus vaccine given to newborns in africa is effective. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 17, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/06/130617142039.htm
Mayo Clinic. "Rotavirus vaccine given to newborns in africa is effective." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/06/130617142039.htm (accessed April 17, 2014).

Share This



More Health & Medicine News

Thursday, April 17, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Could Even Casual Marijuana Use Alter Your Brain?

Could Even Casual Marijuana Use Alter Your Brain?

Newsy (Apr. 16, 2014) A new study conducted by researchers at Northwestern and Harvard suggests even casual marijuana use can alter your brain. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Thousands Of Vials Of SARS Virus Go Missing

Thousands Of Vials Of SARS Virus Go Missing

Newsy (Apr. 16, 2014) A research institute in Paris somehow misplaced more than 2,000 vials of the deadly SARS virus. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Formerly Conjoined Twins Released From Dallas Hospital

Formerly Conjoined Twins Released From Dallas Hospital

Newsy (Apr. 16, 2014) Conjoined twins Emmett and Owen Ezell were separated by doctors in August. Now, nearly nine months later, they're being released from the hospital. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Ebola Outbreak Now Linked To 121 Deaths

Ebola Outbreak Now Linked To 121 Deaths

Newsy (Apr. 15, 2014) The ebola virus outbreak in West Africa is now linked to 121 deaths. Health officials fear the virus will continue to spread in urban areas. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins