Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Human stem cells predict efficacy of Alzheimer drugs

Date:
December 6, 2013
Source:
Universität Bonn
Summary:
Why do certain Alzheimer medications work in animal models but not in clinical trials in humans? A research team has been able to show that results of established test methods with animal models and cell lines used up until now can hardly be translated to the processes in the human brain. Drug testing should therefore be conducted with human nerve cells, conclude the scientists.

Neural stem cells generated from iPS cells derived from a patient with Alzheimer’s disease. Once established such neural stem cells can be used to continuously generate neurons for drug testing and disease modeling. Depicted is an immunofluorescence staining where proteins characteristic of neural stem cells are labeled with fluorescing antibodies (Nestin in green, Dach1 in red).
Credit: Jerome Mertens/Uni Bonn

Why do certain Alzheimer medications work in animal models but not in clinical trials in humans? A research team from the University of Bonn and the biomedical enterprise LIFE & BRAIN GmbH has been able to show that results of established test methods with animal models and cell lines used up until now can hardly be translated to the processes in the human brain. Drug testing should therefore be conducted with human nerve cells, conclude the scientists. The results are published by Cell Press in the journal Stem Cell Reports.

In the brains of Alzheimer patients, deposits form that consist essentially of beta-amyloid and are harmful to nerve cells. Scientists are therefore searching for pharmaceutical compounds that prevent the formation of these dangerous aggregates. In animal models, certain non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were found to a reduced formation of harmful beta-amyloid variants. Yet, in subsequent clinical studies, these NSAIDs failed to elicit any beneficial effects.

"The reasons for these negative results have remained unclear for a long time," says Prof. Dr. Oliver Brüstle, Director of the Institute for Reconstructive Neurobiology of the University of Bonn and CEO of LIFE & BRAIN GmbH. "Remarkably, these compounds were never tested directly on the actual target cells -- the human neuron," adds lead author Dr. Jerome Mertens of Prof. Brüstle's team, who now works at the Laboratory of Genetics in La Jolla (USA). This is because, so far, living human neurons have been extremely difficult to obtain. However, with the recent advances in stem cell research it has become possible to derive limitless numbers of brain cells from a small skin biopsy or other adult cell types.

Scientists transform skin cells into nerve cells

Now a research team from the Institute for Reconstructive Neurobiology and the Department of Neurology of the Bonn University Medical Center together with colleagues from the LIFE & BRAIN GmbH and the University of Leuven (Belgium) has obtained such nerve cells from humans. The researchers used skin cells from two patients with a familial form of Alzheimer's Disease to produce so-called induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells), by reprogramming the body's cells into a quasi-embryonic stage. They then transformed the resulting so-called "jack-of-all-trades cells" into nerve cells.

Using these human neurons, the scientists tested several compounds in the group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. As control, the researchers used nerve cells they had obtained from iPS cells of donors who did not have the disease. Both in the nerve cells obtained from the Alzheimer patients and in the control cells, the NSAIDs that had previously tested positive in the animal models and cell lines typically used for drug screening had practically no effect: The values for the harmful beta-amyloid variants that form the feared aggregates in the brain remained unaffected when the cells were treated with clinically relevant dosages of these compounds.

Metabolic processes in animal models differ from humans

"In order to predict the efficacy of Alzheimer drugs, such tests have to be performed directly on the affected human nerve cells," concludes Prof. Brüstle's colleague Dr. Philipp Koch, who led the study. Why do NSAIDs decrease the risk of aggregate formation in animal experiments and cell lines but not in human neurons? The scientists explain this with differences in metabolic processes between these different cell types. "The results are simply not transferable," says Dr. Koch.

The scientists now hope that in the future, testing of potential drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease will be increasingly conducted using neurons obtained from iPS cells of patients. "The development of a single drug takes an average of ten years," says Prof. Brüstle. "By using patient-specific nerve cells as a test system, investments by pharmaceutical companies and the tedious search for urgently needed Alzheimer medications could be greatly streamlined."


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Universität Bonn. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Jerome Mertens, Kathrin Stüber, Patrick Wunderlich, Julia Ladewig, Jaideep C. Kesavan, Rik Vandenberghe, Mathieu Vandenbulcke, Philip van Damme, Jochen Walter, Oliver Brüstle, Philipp Koch. APP Processing in Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neurons Is Resistant to NSAID-Based γ-Secretase Modulation. Stem Cell Reports, 2013; DOI: 10.1016/j.stemcr.2013.10.011

Cite This Page:

Universität Bonn. "Human stem cells predict efficacy of Alzheimer drugs." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 6 December 2013. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/12/131206091101.htm>.
Universität Bonn. (2013, December 6). Human stem cells predict efficacy of Alzheimer drugs. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 31, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/12/131206091101.htm
Universität Bonn. "Human stem cells predict efficacy of Alzheimer drugs." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/12/131206091101.htm (accessed July 31, 2014).

Share This




More Health & Medicine News

Thursday, July 31, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Dangerous Bacteria Kills One in Florida

Dangerous Bacteria Kills One in Florida

AP (July 31, 2014) — Sarasota County, Florida health officials have issued a warning against eating raw oysters and exposing open wounds to coastal and inland waters after a dangerous bacteria killed one person and made another sick. (July 31) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Health Insurers' Profits Slide

Health Insurers' Profits Slide

Reuters - Business Video Online (July 30, 2014) — Obamacare-related costs were said to be behind the profit plunge at Wellpoint and Humana, but Wellpoint sees the new exchanges boosting its earnings for the full year. Fred Katayama reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Peace Corps Pulls Workers From W. Africa Over Ebola Fears

Peace Corps Pulls Workers From W. Africa Over Ebola Fears

Newsy (July 30, 2014) — The Peace Corps is one of several U.S.-based organizations to pull workers out of West Africa because of the Ebola outbreak. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Weather Kills 2K A Year, But Storms Aren't The Main Offender

Weather Kills 2K A Year, But Storms Aren't The Main Offender

Newsy (July 30, 2014) — Health officials say 2,000 deaths occur each year in the U.S. due to weather, but it's excessive heat and cold that claim the most lives. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

    Environment News

    Technology News



      Save/Print:
      Share:  

      Free Subscriptions


      Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

      Get Social & Mobile


      Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

      Have Feedback?


      Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
      Mobile iPhone Android Web
      Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
      Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
      Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins