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Squeezing transistors really hard generates energy savings

Date:
December 6, 2013
Source:
University of Twente
Summary:
If silicon is squeezed, this affects the freedom of movement of the electrons in this material. This can promote or restrict the flow of electrical current. Compare it to a garden hose. When you stand on it, less water comes out. But strangely enough, the flow of electrons in silicon actually increases when the material is compressed.
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The electrical current passing through a transistor is conducted by a slice of silicon. In the new transistor, this is sandwiched between layers of piezoelectric material. As this material (shown in red) expands, the silicon (shown in blue) is compressed.
Credit: Image courtesy of University of Twente

If silicon is squeezed, this affects the freedom of movement of the electrons in this material. This can promote or restrict the flow of electrical current. Compare it to a garden hose. When you stand on it, less water comes out. But strangely enough, the flow of electrons in silicon actually increases when the material is compressed.

Only pinch when necessary

In modern microchips, every single transistor is continuously exposed to enormous pressures of up to 10,000 atmospheres. This pressure is sealed in during the manufacturing process, by surrounding the transistors with compressive materials. While this boosts the chip's processing speed, the leakage current also increases. The use of piezoelectric material means that the transistors are only put under pressure when this is necessary. This can generate considerable savings in terms of energy consumption.

Limit smashed

The underlying concept was originally developed by Ray Hueting. In order to turn this into reality, Tom van Hemert had to find a way of linking theories of mechanical deformation with quantum-mechanical formulas describing the electrical behaviour of transistors. The calculations indicate that "garden hose transistors" are much better than conventional transistors at switching from off to on. According to the classical theoretical limit, a charge of at least 60 millivolts is needed to make a transistor conduct ten times more electricity. The piezoelectric transistor uses just 50 millivolts. As a result, either the leakage current can be reduced, or more current can be carried in the on-state. Either way, this will boost the performance of modern microchips, while -- importantly -- cutting their energy consumption.

The results of this research were recently published in the journal, Transactions on Electron Devices.


Story Source:

The above post is reprinted from materials provided by University of Twente. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


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University of Twente. "Squeezing transistors really hard generates energy savings." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 6 December 2013. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/12/131206091423.htm>.
University of Twente. (2013, December 6). Squeezing transistors really hard generates energy savings. ScienceDaily. Retrieved August 27, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/12/131206091423.htm
University of Twente. "Squeezing transistors really hard generates energy savings." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/12/131206091423.htm (accessed August 27, 2015).

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