Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Chemical modification discovered in human malaria parasite DNA

Date:
December 11, 2013
Source:
University of California - Riverside
Summary:
Researchers who are trying to understand the biology of Plasmodium, the human malaria parasite, have discovered a potential weakness -- low levels of DNA methylation in Plasmodium's genome that may be critical to the survival of the parasite. Until now, the existence of DNA methylation -- a biochemical process involving the modification of DNA -- in the Plasmodium parasite was disputable.

Life cycle of the human malaria parasite.
Credit: Le Roch Lab, UC Riverside

Say "malaria" and most people think "mosquito," but the buzzing, biting insect is merely the messenger, delivering the Plasmodium parasites that sickened more than 200 million people globally in 2010 and killed about 660,000. Worse, the parasite is showing resistance to artemisinin, the most effective drug for treating infected people.

Related Articles


Now University of California, Riverside researchers who are trying to understand the biology of the parasite have discovered a potential weakness -- low levels of DNA methylation in Plasmodium's genome "that may be critical to the survival of the parasite," said Karine Le Roch, an associate professor of cell biology, who led the research.

DNA methylation is a biochemical process involving the modification of DNA that plays an important role in development and disease.

A paper about the findings of Le Roch and her team, titled "Genome-wide Mapping of the DNA Methylation in the Human Malaria Parasite," appears in the December issue of the journal Cell Host & Microbe.

DNA methylation is a big deal in humans; it is so essential for normal development that abnormal DNA methylation patterns have been linked with many diseases, including cancers and neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. Until now, the existence of DNA methylation in the Plasmodium parasite was disputable, Le Roch said. There were published contradicting studies that used old technology to search for methylation, but Le Roch's team was able to confirm low levels of methylation using classical molecular approaches as well as new sequencing technology.

The DNA methylation enzyme found in Plasmodium is also quite different than the one in humans, Le Roch said, "and because it is different we can eventually find a way to target it and shut it down. If a drug can be developed that specifically inhibits the methylation enzyme, it could kill the parasite in infected humans."

Researchers are keen to find a new drug against malaria, since mutations in the parasite have made it resistant to the most effective drugs on the market. "We need a new drug every five years," Le Roch said, "because the parasites always find a way to develop resistance against a drug."

Le Roch's ultimate goal is to map the regulatory networks controlling the entire life cycle of the Plasmodium parasite. She reasons that researchers really need to understand the entire biology of the parasite and how it replicates. "We're trying to find its Achilles heel," she said. "If you look at only one level, it's not going to give you the answer. We need to put all the pieces of the puzzle together."

Plasmodium's life cycle is very complex as it lives in both humans and mosquitoes. The parasite moves to the salivary glands of an infected mosquito. Once the mosquito bites a human, the parasite is injected into the blood stream and quickly reaches the liver cells, where it rapidly reproduces asexually, creating thousands of new parasites that move into red blood cells, their favorite food source. The parasite is transmitted from humans to mosquitoes when a mosquito draws blood from an infected human.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of California - Riverside. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Karine Le Roch et al. Genome-wide Mapping of the DNA Methylation in the Human Malaria Parasite. Cell Host & Microbe, December 2013

Cite This Page:

University of California - Riverside. "Chemical modification discovered in human malaria parasite DNA." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 11 December 2013. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/12/131211131624.htm>.
University of California - Riverside. (2013, December 11). Chemical modification discovered in human malaria parasite DNA. ScienceDaily. Retrieved March 29, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/12/131211131624.htm
University of California - Riverside. "Chemical modification discovered in human malaria parasite DNA." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/12/131211131624.htm (accessed March 29, 2015).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Plants & Animals News

Sunday, March 29, 2015

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Vietnam Rice Boom Piles Pressure on Farmers and the Environment

Vietnam Rice Boom Piles Pressure on Farmers and the Environment

AFP (Mar. 29, 2015) — Vietnam&apos;s drive to become the world&apos;s leading rice exporter is pushing farmers in the fertile Mekong Delta to the brink, say experts, with mounting costs to the environment. Duration: 02:35 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Raw: Lioness Has Rare Five-Cub Litter

Raw: Lioness Has Rare Five-Cub Litter

AP (Mar. 27, 2015) — A lioness in Pakistan has given birth to five cubs, twice the usual size of a litter. Queen gave birth to two other cubs just nine months ago. (March 27) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Jockey Motion Tracking Reveals Racing Prowess

Jockey Motion Tracking Reveals Racing Prowess

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Mar. 26, 2015) — Using motion tracking technology, researchers from the Royal Veterinary College (RVC) are trying to establish an optimum horse riding style to train junior jockeys, as well as enhance safety, health and well-being of both racehorses and jockeys. Matthew Stock reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Bear Cubs Tumble for the Media

Bear Cubs Tumble for the Media

Reuters - Light News Video Online (Mar. 26, 2015) — Two Andean bear cubs are unveiled at the U.S. National Zoo in Washington, D.C. Alicia Powell reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories

 

Plants & Animals

Earth & Climate

Fossils & Ruins

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins