Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Large study identifies exact gut bacteria involved in Crohn's disease

Date:
March 12, 2014
Source:
Cell Press
Summary:
While the causes of Crohn's disease are not well understood, recent research indicates an important role for an abnormal immune response to the microbes that live in the gut. In the largest study of its kind, researchers have now identified specific bacteria that are abnormally increased or decreased when Crohn's disease develops. The findings suggest which microbial metabolites could be targeted to treat patients with this chronic and currently incurable inflammatory bowel disease.

While the causes of Crohn's disease are not well understood, recent research indicates an important role for an abnormal immune response to the microbes that live in the gut. In the largest study of its kind, researchers have now identified specific bacteria that are abnormally increased or decreased when Crohn's disease develops. The findings, which appear in the March 12 issue of the Cell Press journal Cell Host & Microbe, suggest which microbial metabolites could be targeted to treat patients with this chronic and currently incurable inflammatory bowel disease.

Twenty-eight gastroenterology centers across North America have been working together to uncover how microbes contribute to the inflammatory cascade of Crohn's disease. Researchers took biopsies from 447 individuals with new-onset Crohn's disease and 221 nonaffected individuals at multiple locations along the gastrointestinal tract and then looked for differences between the two groups. They also validated their methods in additional individuals, resulting in a total of 1,742 samples from pediatric and adult patients with either new-onset or established disease.

The team found that microbial balance was disrupted in patients with Crohn's disease, with beneficial microbes missing and pathological ones flourishing. Having more of the disease-associated organisms correlated with increasing clinical disease activity. "These findings can guide the development of better diagnostics," says senior author Dr. Ramnik Xavier of Massachusetts General Hospital and the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard. "More importantly, our study identified specific organisms that are abnormally increased or decreased in disease, which forms a blueprint to develop microbial therapeutics."

When the researchers analyzed the effects of antibiotics, which are sometimes used to treat Crohn's disease symptoms prior to diagnosis, they found that antibiotic usage in children with Crohn's disease could be counterproductive because it causes a loss of good microbes and an increase in pathological ones.

The investigators also examined different approaches for measuring gut microbes in patients and found that the bacterial communities in biopsies taken from rectal tissue served as good indicators of disease, regardless of where a patient was experiencing inflammation along the gastrointestinal tract. "This finding is particularly encouraging because it creates the opportunity to use a minimally invasive approach to collecting patient samples for early disease detection," explains first author Dr. Dirk Gevers of the Broad Institute.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Cell Press. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Dirk Gevers, Subra Kugathasan, Lee A. Denson, Yoshiki Vαzquez-Baeza, Will Van Treuren, Boyu Ren, Emma Schwager, Dan Knights, Se Jin Song, Moran Yassour, Xochitl C. Morgan, Aleksandar D. Kostic, Chengwei Luo, Antonio Gonzαlez, Daniel McDonald, Yael Haberman, Thomas Walters, Susan Baker, Joel Rosh, Michael Stephens, Melvin Heyman, James Markowitz, Robert Baldassano, Anne Griffiths, Francisco Sylvester, David Mack, Sandra Kim, Wallace Crandall, Jeffrey Hyams, Curtis Huttenhower, Rob Knight, Ramnik J. Xavier. The treatment-naive microbiome in new onset Crohn's Disease. Cell Host & Microbe, March 2014 DOI: 10.1016/j.chom.2014.02.005

Cite This Page:

Cell Press. "Large study identifies exact gut bacteria involved in Crohn's disease." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 12 March 2014. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/03/140312132617.htm>.
Cell Press. (2014, March 12). Large study identifies exact gut bacteria involved in Crohn's disease. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 2, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/03/140312132617.htm
Cell Press. "Large study identifies exact gut bacteria involved in Crohn's disease." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/03/140312132617.htm (accessed October 2, 2014).

Share This



More Health & Medicine News

Thursday, October 2, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Pregnancy Spacing Could Have Big Impact On Autism Risks

Pregnancy Spacing Could Have Big Impact On Autism Risks

Newsy (Oct. 1, 2014) — A new study says children born less than one year and more than five years after a sibling can have an increased risk for autism. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Robotic Hair Restoration

Robotic Hair Restoration

Ivanhoe (Oct. 1, 2014) — A new robotic procedure is changing the way we transplant hair. The ARTAS robot leaves no linear scarring and provides more natural results. Video provided by Ivanhoe
Powered by NewsLook.com
Insertable Cardiac Monitor

Insertable Cardiac Monitor

Ivanhoe (Oct. 1, 2014) — A heart monitor the size of a paperclip that can save your life. The “Reveal Linq” allows a doctor to monitor patients with A-Fib on a continuous basis for up to 3 years! Video provided by Ivanhoe
Powered by NewsLook.com
Attacking Superbugs

Attacking Superbugs

Ivanhoe (Oct. 1, 2014) — Two weapons hospitals can use to attack superbugs. Scientists in Ireland created a new gel resistant to superbugs, and a robot that can disinfect a room in minutes. Video provided by Ivanhoe
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories

 

Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins