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Neurons in human skin perform advanced calculations

Date:
September 1, 2014
Source:
Ume University
Summary:
Neurons in human skin perform advanced calculations, previously believed that only the brain could perform.A characteristic of neurons that extend into the skin and record touch, is that they branch in the skin so that each neuron reports touch from many highly-sensitive zones on the skin. According to researchers, this branching allows first-order tactile neurons not only to send signals to the brain that something has touched the skin, but also process geometric data about the object touching the skin.

Work performed in Andrew Pruszynski's lab.
Credit: Mattias Pettersson

Neurons in human skin perform advanced calculations, previously believed that only the brain could perform. This is according to a study from Ume University in Sweden published in the journal Nature Neuroscience.

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A fundamental characteristic of neurons that extend into the skin and record touch, so-called first-order neurons in the tactile system, is that they branch in the skin so that each neuron reports touch from many highly-sensitive zones on the skin.

According to researchers at the Department of Integrative Medical Biology, IMB, Ume University, this branching allows first-order tactile neurons not only to send signals to the brain that something has touched the skin, but also process geometric data about the object touching the skin.

"Our work has shown that two types of first-order tactile neurons that supply the sensitive skin at our fingertips not only signal information about when and how intensely an object is touched, but also information about the touched object's shape" says Andrew Pruszynski, who is one of the researchers behind the study.

The study also shows that the sensitivity of individual neurons to the shape of an object depends on the layout of the neuron's highly-sensitive zones in the skin.

"Perhaps the most surprising result of our study is that these peripheral neurons, which are engaged when a fingertip examines an object, perform the same type of calculations done by neurons in the cerebral cortex. Somewhat simplified, it means that our touch experiences are already processed by neurons in the skin before they reach the brain for further processing" says Andrew Pruszynski.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Ume University. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. J Andrew Pruszynski, Roland S Johansson. Edge-orientation processing in first-order tactile neurons. Nature Neuroscience, 2014; DOI: 10.1038/nn.3804

Cite This Page:

Ume University. "Neurons in human skin perform advanced calculations." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 1 September 2014. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/09/140901090301.htm>.
Ume University. (2014, September 1). Neurons in human skin perform advanced calculations. ScienceDaily. Retrieved January 30, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/09/140901090301.htm
Ume University. "Neurons in human skin perform advanced calculations." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/09/140901090301.htm (accessed January 30, 2015).

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