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Tests to detect acute HIV infection

Date:
February 16, 2016
Source:
The JAMA Network Journals
Summary:
Researchers evaluated the performance of an HIV antigen/antibody (Ag/Ab) combination assay to detect acute HIV infection (early infection) compared with pooled HIV RNA testing, the reference standard.
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In a study appearing in the February 16 issue of JAMA, Philip J. Peters, M.D., of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, and colleagues evaluated the performance of an HIV antigen/antibody (Ag/Ab) combination assay to detect acute HIV infection (early infection) compared with pooled HIV RNA testing, the reference standard.

The study included 86,836 participants in a high-prevalence population from 7 sexually transmitted infection clinics and 5 community-based programs in New York, California, and North Carolina. Although acute HIV infection contributes disproportionately to onward HIV transmission, HIV testing has not routinely included screening for acute infection.

The researchers found that the HIV Ag/Ab combination assay in place of rapid HIV testing increased the absolute HIV diagnostic yield by 0.15 percent and diagnosed 82 percent of the acute HIV infections detectable by pooled RNA testing. Compared with rapid HIV testing alone, HIV Ag/Ab combination testing increased the relative HIV diagnostic yield (both established and acute HIV infections) by 10.4 percent and pooled HIV RNA testing increased the relative HIV diagnostic yield by 12.4 percent. "Alternative strategies such as using a laboratory-based HIV Ag/Ab combination assay that can detect acute infection should be considered in high-prevalence populations in the United States."


Story Source:

Materials provided by The JAMA Network Journals. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Philip J. Peters, Emily Westheimer, Stephanie Cohen, Lisa B. Hightow-Weidman, Nicholas Moss, Benjamin Tsoi, Laura Hall, Charles Fann, Demetre C. Daskalakis, Steve Beagle, Pragna Patel, Asa Radix, Evelyn Foust, Robert P. Kohn, Jenni Marmorino, Mark Pandori, Jie Fu, Taraz Samandari, Cynthia L. Gay. Screening Yield of HIV Antigen/Antibody Combination and Pooled HIV RNA Testing for Acute HIV Infection in a High-Prevalence Population. JAMA, 2016; 315 (7): 682 DOI: 10.1001/jama.2016.0286

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The JAMA Network Journals. "Tests to detect acute HIV infection." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 16 February 2016. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/02/160216123441.htm>.
The JAMA Network Journals. (2016, February 16). Tests to detect acute HIV infection. ScienceDaily. Retrieved May 24, 2017 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/02/160216123441.htm
The JAMA Network Journals. "Tests to detect acute HIV infection." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/02/160216123441.htm (accessed May 24, 2017).

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