Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Going Beyond Einstein: Spacetime Wave Orbits Black Hole

Date:
January 13, 2005
Source:
Harvard-Smithsonian Center For Astrophysics
Summary:
Astronomers Jon Miller (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) and Jeroen Homan (MIT) have seen evidence of hot iron gas riding a ripple in spacetime around a black hole. This spacetime wave, if confirmed, would represent a new phenomenon that goes beyond Einstein's general relativity.

Astronomers have discovered evidence for physics beyond Einstein's general relativity. This artist's conception shows a galactic black hole being orbited by a ripple in spacetime--a distortion in the fabric of space itself. Credit: Dana Berry (CfA/NASA).

San Diego, CA -- Astronomers Jon Miller (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) and Jeroen Homan (MIT) have seen evidence of hot iron gas riding a ripple in spacetime around a black hole. This spacetime wave, if confirmed, would represent a new phenomenon that goes beyond Einstein's general relativity.

These observations confirm one important theory about how a black hole's extreme gravity can stretch light. The data also paint an intriguing image of how a spinning black hole can drag the very fabric of space around with it, creating a choppy spacetime sea that distorts everything falling into the black hole.

Miller and Homan observed the phenomenon with NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. They present this result today at a press conference at the 205th meeting of the American Astronomical Society in San Diego, Calif.

"Black holes are such extreme objects that they can actually warp and drag the fabric of spacetime around with them as they spin," said Miller, who is the lead author on an article to be published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters. "Gas whipping around the black hole has no choice but to ride that wave. Albert Einstein predicted this over 80 years ago, and now we are starting to see evidence for it."

A black hole is a region in space where gravitational forces are so great that not even light can escape. Gas and dust funnel towards a black hole in an accretion disk, swirling around and into the void like water down a drain. This process of accretion generates copious amounts of light - predominantly X-ray radiation, particularly in the innermost (hottest) regions of the accretion disk. Near the black hole, gravity is rather intense, but light still can muster an escape by climbing out of the black hole's gravitational "well," losing energy during the climb. Thus, scientists can study black hole activity with X-ray telescopes like the Rossi Explorer.

Miller and Homan, for the first time, found a connection between two important characteristics of black hole observations: quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) and the broad iron K line. QPOs refer to the way the X-ray light seems to flicker. The broad iron K line refers to the shape of a spike on a spectrogram (a tool scientists use to analyze light characteristics such as energy). Light from iron atoms emitted at a specific frequency creates a bright line in the spectrogram. The line is broadened, or stretched to lower energies, because the light loses energy as it climbs out of a gravitational well.

Using the Rossi Explorer, Miller and Homan studied a black hole named GRS 1915+105, about 40,000 light years away in the constellation Aquila, the Eagle. They noticed that a low-frequency QPO of 1 to 2 hertz was tied to changes in the broad iron K line, as if the two features knew of each other. The fact that the two signals were in synch and were unaffected by other phenomena-such as black hole jet activity-strongly suggests that both are occurring very close to the black hole. And this, the scientists say, rules out a theory stating that broad iron lines are created in black hole winds far from the black hole itself.

This discovery raised the question of what could be causing the connection. "High-frequency QPOs are likely from matter racing around the black hole, glowing like lightbulbs on a merry-go-round," said Homan. "Of course, matter is moving much faster around a black hole than on any amusement park attraction. We see frequencies of hundreds of hertz, or hundreds of revolutions of the disk per second. That's quite a ride."

Lower-frequency QPOs are a deeper mystery. These are typically 1 to 10 hertz, and they're quite common in many binary star systems with black holes. Miller and Homan say that in the GRS 1915+105 system, the slower QPO could be the frequency of a spacetime warp. In that case, the low-frequency QPO flickering is caused by the fabric of space itself churning around the black hole in a wave. This is known as Lense-Thirring precession, which evolves out of Einstein's theory of general relativity.

Imagine the accretion disk as a music CD. (The Beach Boys come to mind.) The wave produced by the spacetime warp would increase the surface area of the flat disk. The broadness of iron K lines depends on surface area. So, this momentary increase in surface area, "flickering" at a frequency of 1 to 2 hertz, could explain the repetitive changes observed in the iron K line. Each time the hot iron gas encounters the spacetime warp, the light gets a jolt and the broad iron K line changes its appearance.

Miller and Homan caution that this is only one explanation of their observation, and that other explanations may be possible. What is clear, the scientists say, is that they are seeing a connection between QPOs and the broad iron K line, and this in turn means that scientists are probing more closely to black holes than ever before.

Headquartered in Cambridge, Mass., the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) is a joint collaboration between the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Harvard College Observatory. CfA scientists, organized into six research divisions, study the origin, evolution and ultimate fate of the universe.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Harvard-Smithsonian Center For Astrophysics. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

Harvard-Smithsonian Center For Astrophysics. "Going Beyond Einstein: Spacetime Wave Orbits Black Hole." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 13 January 2005. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/01/050111114248.htm>.
Harvard-Smithsonian Center For Astrophysics. (2005, January 13). Going Beyond Einstein: Spacetime Wave Orbits Black Hole. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 28, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/01/050111114248.htm
Harvard-Smithsonian Center For Astrophysics. "Going Beyond Einstein: Spacetime Wave Orbits Black Hole." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/01/050111114248.htm (accessed July 28, 2014).

Share This




More Space & Time News

Monday, July 28, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Russia Saves Gecko Sex Satellite, Media Has Some Fun With It

Russia Saves Gecko Sex Satellite, Media Has Some Fun With It

Newsy (July 27, 2014) The satellite is back under ground control after a tense few days, but with a gecko sex experiment on board, the media just couldn't help themselves. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
NASA EDGE: OCO-2 Launch

NASA EDGE: OCO-2 Launch

NASA (July 25, 2014) NASA EDGE webcasts live from Vandenberg AFB for the launch of the Oribiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO) launch. Video provided by NASA
Powered by NewsLook.com
This Week @ NASA, July 25, 2014

This Week @ NASA, July 25, 2014

NASA (July 25, 2014) Apollo 11 celebration, Next Giant Leap anticipation, ISS astronauts appear in the House and more... Video provided by NASA
Powered by NewsLook.com
Space to Ground: Coming and Going

Space to Ground: Coming and Going

NASA (July 25, 2014) One station cargo ship leaves, another arrives, aquatic research and commercial spinoffs. Questions or comments? Use #spacetoground to talk to us. Video provided by NASA
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins