Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Novel Material May Demonstrate Long-sought 'Liquid' Magnetic State

Date:
September 9, 2005
Source:
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)
Summary:
A novel material that may demonstrate a highly unusual "liquid" magnetic state at extremely low temperatures has been discovered by a team of Japanese and U.S. researchers, according to tomorrow's issue of Science. The material, nickel gallium sulfide (NiGa2S4), was synthesized by scientists at Kyoto University. Its properties were studied by both the Japanese team and by researchers from The Johns Hopkins University (JHU) and the University of Maryland (UM) at the Commerce Department's National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

A crystal diagram shows the triangle-shaped atomic structure of nickel gallium sulfide, which may have an unusual "liquid" magnetic state at low temperatures. Red spheres represent nickel, green spheres are gallium, and yellow are sulfur.
Credit: Image credit: S. Nakatsuji et al., Science, 9/9/2005

The material, nickel galliumsulfide (NiGa2S4), was synthesized by scientists at Kyoto University.Its properties were studied by both the Japanese team and byresearchers from The Johns Hopkins University (JHU) and the Universityof Maryland (UM) at the Commerce Department's National Institute ofStandards and Technology (NIST).
The scientists studied thepolycrystalline sample using both X-rays and neutrons as probes tounderstand its structure and properties. The neutron experiments wereconducted at the NIST Center for Neutron Research.

The team foundthat the triangular arrangement of the material's atoms appears toprevent alignment of magnetic "spins," the characteristic of electronsthat produces magnetism. A "liquid" magnetic state occurs when magneticspins fluctuate in a disorderedly, fluid-like arrangement that does notproduce an overall magnetic force. The state was first proposed astheoretically possible about 30 years ago. A liquid magnetic state maybe related to the similarly fluid way that electrons flow withoutresistance in superconducting materials.

According to CollinBroholm, a professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at TheJohns Hopkins University in Baltimore, "the current work shows that atan instant in time the material looks like a magnetic liquid, butwhether there are fluctuations in time, as in a liquid, remains to beseen."
Each electron can be thought of as a tiny bar magnet. Thedirection of its "north" pole is its spin. "An ordered pattern of spinsgenerally uses less energy," says Broholm, "but the triangular crystalstructure prevents this from happening in this material."

Theteam conducted their neutron experiments with an instrument called a"disk chopper spectrometer." The only one of its kind in North America,the instrument sends bursts of neutrons of the same wavelength througha sample. Then, more than 900 detectors arranged in a large semicircledetermine exactly where and when the neutrons emerge, providinginformation key to mapping electron spins.

"The energy range andresolution we can achieve with this instrument is ideal for studyingmagnetic systems," adds Yiming Qiu, a NIST guest researcher from UM.

Thewavelength of the slowed-down (cold) neutrons available at the NISTfacility--less than 1 nanometer (billionth of meter)--also allows theresearchers to study nanoscale magnetic properties too small to bemeasured with other methods.

###

The project was funded byGrants-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Japan Society for thePromotion of Science and for the 21st Century Center of Excellence''Center for Diversity and Universality in Physics'' from MEXT ofJapan, and by the Inamori Foundation. Work at The Johns HopkinsUniversity was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. Work at NISTwas supported in part by the National Science Foundation.

As anon-regulatory agency, NIST develops and promotes measurement,standards and technology to enhance productivity, facilitate trade andimprove the quality of life.
* S. Nakatsuji, Y. Nambu, H. Tonomura,O. Sakai, S. Jonas, C. Broholm, H. Tsunetsugu, Y. Qiu, Y. Maeno. "SpinDisorder on a triangular lattice." Science, Sept. 9, 2005.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). "Novel Material May Demonstrate Long-sought 'Liquid' Magnetic State." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 9 September 2005. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/09/050909075944.htm>.
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). (2005, September 9). Novel Material May Demonstrate Long-sought 'Liquid' Magnetic State. ScienceDaily. Retrieved August 1, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/09/050909075944.htm
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). "Novel Material May Demonstrate Long-sought 'Liquid' Magnetic State." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/09/050909075944.htm (accessed August 1, 2014).

Share This




More Matter & Energy News

Friday, August 1, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Tesla, Panasonic Ink Deal To Make Huge Battery 'Gigafactory'

Tesla, Panasonic Ink Deal To Make Huge Battery 'Gigafactory'

Newsy (July 31, 2014) The deal will help build a massive battery factory that Tesla says will produce 500,000 lithium batteries by 2020. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Britain Testing Driverless Cars on Roadways

Britain Testing Driverless Cars on Roadways

AP (July 30, 2014) British officials said on Wednesday that driverless cars will be tested on roads in as many as three cities in a trial program set to begin in January. Officials said the tests will last up to three years. (July 30) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
7 Ways to Use Toothpaste: Howdini Hacks

7 Ways to Use Toothpaste: Howdini Hacks

Howdini (July 30, 2014) Fresh breath and clean teeth are great, but have you ever thought, "my toothpaste could be doing more". Well, it can! Lots of things! Howdini has 7 new uses for this household staple. Video provided by Howdini
Powered by NewsLook.com
Smoked: 2015 Ducati Diavel Vs 2014 Chevy Corvette Stingray Drag Race

Smoked: 2015 Ducati Diavel Vs 2014 Chevy Corvette Stingray Drag Race

Cycle World (July 30, 2014) The Bonnier Motorcycle Group presents Smoked; a three part video series. In this episode the 2015 Ducati Diavel takes on the 2014 Chevy Corvette Stingray Video provided by Cycle World
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins