Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Ultracold Atoms Produce Long-sought Quantum Mixture

Date:
March 14, 2006
Source:
Rice University
Summary:
Physicists have a new window into two of the most intriguing and least understood phenomena in physics -- superconductivity and superfluidity. Researchers report the observation of an elusive quantum state -- a superfluid of fermions with mismatched numbers of dance partners. Despite more than 40 years of theoretical musings about what would occur in such a case, the result -- a cluster of matched pairs surrounded by a cloud of would-be dance partners -- was largely unexpected, and it has opened the door to several intriguing new avenues of investigation.

Rice University physicist Randall Hulet will discuss breakthrough efforts to create a long-sought quantum superfluid at a press conference at 2:30 p.m. today at the American Physical Society's 2006 March Meeting.

In January, Hulet's laboratory reported in the journal Science the observation of an elusive quantum state -- a superfluid of fermions with mismatched numbers of dance partners. Despite more than 40 years of theoretical musings about what would occur in such a case, the result -- a cluster of matched pairs surrounded by a cloud of would-be dance partners -- was largely unexpected, and it has opened the door to several intriguing new avenues of investigation.

Rice's experiments offer physicists a new window into two of the most intriguing and least understood phenomena in physics -- superconductivity and superfluidity.

In the bizarre and rule-bound world of quantum physics, every tiny speck of matter has something called "spin" -- an intrinsic trait like eye color -- that cannot be changed and which dictates, very specifically, what other bits of matter the speck can share quantum space with. Because of their spins, fermions are the most antisocial of quantum particles. But when they do get together, fermion pairings enable such wondrous things as superconductivity and superfluidity.

Both phenomena result from a change in the phase of matter. Anyone who has seen ice melt has seen matter change phases, and when electrons, atoms and other specks of matter change quantum phases, they behave just as differently as do ice and water in a glass.

Superconducting and superfluid phases of matter occur in fermions only when quantum effects become dominant. Because thermodynamic forces are typically so powerful that they overwhelm quantum interactions -- like loud music overwhelms the whisper of someone nearby -- superconductivity and superfluidity usually only occur in extreme cold.

In the Rice experiments, when temperatures drop to within a few billionths of a degree of absolute zero, fermions with equal but opposite spin become attracted to one another and behave, in some respects, like one particle. Like a couple on the dance floor, they don't technically share space, but they move in unison. In superconductors, these dancing pairs allow electrical current to flow through the material without any resistance at all, a property that engineers have long dreamed of harnessing to eliminate "leakage" in power cables, something that costs billions of dollars per year in the U.S. alone.

The superconducting and superfluid phases are analogous except that superconductivity happens with particles carrying an electrical charge and superfluidity occurs in electrically neutral particles. In superfluids, fermionic pairing leads to a complete absence of viscosity -- like a wave rippling back and forth in a swimming pool without ever diminishing.

"Conventional theory tells us superconductivity or superfluidity occurs only in the presence of an equal number of spin-up and spin-down particles," said Hulet, the Fayez Sarofim Professor of Physics and Astronomy. "Physicists have speculated for almost 50 years about what would happen if this condition were not met.

"Because of the pristine and controlled nature of ultracold atoms, we're able to offer definitive evidence of what happens with mismatched numbers of spin-up and spin-down particles."

Ultracold experiments at temperatures just a few billionths of a degree above absolute zero are Hulet's specialty. It's only been technically possible to chill atoms to these temperatures for the past 10 years, but in that time, this ability has proved remarkably useful for testing the predictions of quantum mechanics and for exploring the properties of what physicists call "many-body phenomena," including superconductivity and superfluidity.

Hulet's team cooled a mixture of fermionic lithium-6 atoms to about 30-billionths of a degree above absolute zero. That's far colder than any temperature in nature -- even in deepest interstellar space -- and it's sufficient to quell virtually all thermodynamic interaction in the atoms, leaving them subject to superfluid quantum pairing.

Using radio waves, Hulet's team can alter the ratio of spin-up and spin-down atoms in the cooled sample with great precision. They have found that the superfluid is able to tolerate an excess of up to 10 percent unpaired fermions with no detrimental effects.

"The gas behaves as if it is still perfectly paired, which is quite remarkable given the excess of spin-up atoms," Hulet said. "This was unexpected, and it could signal a new, exotic form of pairing that may also occur in unconventional superconductors or in the quark soup that's predicted to exist at the heart of the densest neutron stars."

In the largest neutron stars -- known as "quark stars" -- a mass about five times greater than the sun is pressed into a space smaller than the island of Manhattan. Some physics theorists believe gravity is so strong at the heart of these stars that it creates something called "strange matter," a dense superfluid of up quarks, down quarks and strange quarks.

Hulet's team has also found that increasing the ratio of spin-up to spin-down atoms eventually causes a phase change. When unpaired spin-up atoms rise above 10 percent of the total sample, the unpaired loners are suddenly expelled, leaving a core of superfluid pairs surrounded by a shell of excess spin-up atoms.

The research is supported by the National Science Foundation, the Office of Naval Research, NASA and the R.A. Welch Foundation.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Rice University. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

Rice University. "Ultracold Atoms Produce Long-sought Quantum Mixture." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 14 March 2006. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/03/060314165618.htm>.
Rice University. (2006, March 14). Ultracold Atoms Produce Long-sought Quantum Mixture. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 22, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/03/060314165618.htm
Rice University. "Ultracold Atoms Produce Long-sought Quantum Mixture." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/03/060314165618.htm (accessed July 22, 2014).

Share This




More Matter & Energy News

Tuesday, July 22, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Government Approves East Coast Oil Exploration

Government Approves East Coast Oil Exploration

AP (July 18, 2014) The Obama administration approved the use of sonic cannons to discover deposits under the ocean floor by shooting sound waves 100 times louder than a jet engine through waters shared by endangered whales and turtles. (July 18) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Sunken German U-Boat Clearly Visible For First Time

Sunken German U-Boat Clearly Visible For First Time

Newsy (July 18, 2014) The wreckage of the German submarine U-166 has become clearly visible for the first time since it was discovered in 2001. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Obama: U.S. Must Have "smartest Airports, Best Power Grid"

Obama: U.S. Must Have "smartest Airports, Best Power Grid"

Reuters - US Online Video (July 17, 2014) President Barak Obama stopped by at a lunch counter in Delaware before making remarks about boosting the nation's infrastructure. Mana Rabiee reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Crude Oil Prices Bounce Back After Falling Below $100 a Barrel

Crude Oil Prices Bounce Back After Falling Below $100 a Barrel

TheStreet (July 16, 2014) Oil Futures are bouncing back after tumbling below $100 a barrel for the first time since May yesterday. Jeff Grossman is the president of BRG Brokerage and trades at the NYMEX. Grossman tells TheStreet the Middle East is always a concern for oil traders. Oil prices were pushed down in recent weeks on Libya increasing its production. Supply disruptions in Iraq fading also contributed to prices falling. News from China's economic front showing a growth for the second quarter also calmed fears on its slowdown. Jeff Grossman talks to TheStreet's Susannah Lee on this and more on the Energy Department's Energy Information Administration (EIA) report. Video provided by TheStreet
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins