Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Malaria May Fuel Spread Of HIV In Sub-Saharan Africa

Date:
December 7, 2006
Source:
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
Summary:
Malaria may be fueling the spread of HIV in areas of sub-Saharan Africa where there is a substantial overlap between the two diseases, while HIV may be playing a role in boosting adult malaria-infection rates in some parts of the region, according to a new study by researchers at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and the University of Washington.

Malaria may be fueling the spread of HIV in areas of sub-Saharan Africa where there is a substantial overlap between the two diseases, while HIV may be playing a role in boosting adult malaria-infection rates in some parts of the region, according to a new study by researchers at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and the University of Washington.

Related Articles


The findings, published in the Dec. 8 issue of Science, found that because malaria increases the viral load of an HIV-infected person on the order of 10 times, it makes HIV more transmissible to a sex partner. Conversely, HIV may play a role in the geographic expansion of malaria in Africa because HIV-infected persons are more susceptible to malaria infections due to their already-compromised immune systems, according to study co-authored by Laith J. Abu-Raddad, Ph.D., Padmaja Patnaik, Ph.D. and James G. Kublin M.D., M.P.H.

"While HIV/AIDS is predominantly spreading through sexual intercourse, this biological co-factor induced by malaria has contributed considerably to the spread of HIV by increasing HIV transmission probability per sexual act," said Abu-Raddad, an HIV/AIDS research scientist in the Hutchinson Center's Statistical Center for HIV/AIDS Research and Prevention and the Center for Studies in Demography and Ecology at the University of Washington.

"In turn, the weakening of the immune system by HIV infection has fueled a rise in adult malaria-infection rates and may have facilitated the expansion of malaria in Africa," said Kublin, an HIV/AIDS scientist in the Hutchinson Center's Clinical Research Division.

Using a mathematical model designed by Abu-Raddad that was based on HIV and malaria co-infection data in Malawi measured and collected by Kublin, the scientists for the first time were able to assess quantitatively the impact of malaria on HIV and vice versa, as well as provide the first assessment of the role of "blips" in HIV viral load seen during HIV co-infection with some other diseases. They estimate that tens of thousands of HIV infections and millions of malaria cases are likely the result of this co-infection.

Using the town of Kisumu, Kenya on the shore of Lake Victoria as an example, Abu-Raddad estimates that 5 percent of all HIV infections are attributed to the heightened HIV viral load induced by malaria. "In Kisumu, we estimate that 10 percent of adult malaria episodes are attributed to HIV," he said.

That translates into 8,500 excess HIV infections and 980,000 excess malaria episodes since 1980 in a town with an adult population of about 200,000, the researchers said.

Kublin said that these findings suggest that other co-infections such as genital herpes or tuberculosis may have also contributed to the rapid expansion of HIV in Africa.

The study's findings have implications for public health, Kublin said. "We can reduce HIV/AIDS transmission by concomitantly treating HIV/AIDS co-infections with malaria as well as other diseases," he said.

"The global public-health system's failure to deal with the challenge of HIV/AIDS contributes directly to its failure to tackle other public-health challenges such as malaria and tuberculosis," Abu-Raddad said. "As long as HIV/AIDS continues to spread, it will aggravate the difficulties we face with these other diseases and may contribute to the emergence of more lethal or drug-resistant strains of these infections," Kublin added.

The study was funded by the Center for AIDS Research (CFAR) at the University of Washington through the Mathematical Modeling Program for HIV/STD Research. The HIV Vaccine Trials Network at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center provided partial support for this work.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. "Malaria May Fuel Spread Of HIV In Sub-Saharan Africa." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 7 December 2006. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/12/061207161148.htm>.
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. (2006, December 7). Malaria May Fuel Spread Of HIV In Sub-Saharan Africa. ScienceDaily. Retrieved October 30, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/12/061207161148.htm
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center. "Malaria May Fuel Spread Of HIV In Sub-Saharan Africa." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2006/12/061207161148.htm (accessed October 30, 2014).

Share This



More Health & Medicine News

Thursday, October 30, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Mind-Controlled Prosthetic Arm Restores Amputee Dexterity

Mind-Controlled Prosthetic Arm Restores Amputee Dexterity

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Oct. 29, 2014) A Swedish amputee who became the first person to ever receive a brain controlled prosthetic arm is able to manipulate and handle delicate objects with an unprecedented level of dexterity. The device is connected directly to his bone, nerves and muscles, giving him the ability to control it with his thoughts. Matthew Stock reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Google To Use Nanoparticles, Wearables To Detect Disease

Google To Use Nanoparticles, Wearables To Detect Disease

Newsy (Oct. 29, 2014) Google X wants to improve modern medicine with nanoparticles and a wearable device. It's all an attempt to tackle disease detection and prevention. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Can Drinking Milk Lead To Early Death?

Can Drinking Milk Lead To Early Death?

Newsy (Oct. 29, 2014) Researchers in Sweden released a study showing heavy milk drinkers face an increased mortality risk from a variety of causes. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Obama: The US Will Not 'run and Hide' From Ebola

Obama: The US Will Not 'run and Hide' From Ebola

AP (Oct. 29, 2014) Surrounded by health care workers in the White House East Room, President Barack Obama said the U.S. will likely see additional Ebola cases in the weeks ahead. But he said the nation can't seal itself off in the fight against the disease. (Oct. 29) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

    Environment News

    Technology News



    Save/Print:
    Share:

    Free Subscriptions


    Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

    Get Social & Mobile


    Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

    Have Feedback?


    Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
    Mobile: iPhone Android Web
    Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
    Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
    Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins