Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

New Saliva-based HIV Test May Speed Up Detection

Date:
May 6, 2008
Source:
McGill University Health Centre
Summary:
The usual waiting period for the results of a HIV test can seem like an eternity, especially in emergency situations where results are needed immediately. Also it requires a blood sample, which is invasive and often painful. Recognizing the urgent need for a faster and less invasive diagnostic method, researchers have just finished testing a new saliva-based test that gives results in approximately 20 minutes.

The usual waiting period for the results of a HIV test can seem like an eternity, especially in emergency situations where results are needed immediately. Also it requires a blood sample, which is invasive and often painful. Recognizing the urgent need for a faster and less invasive diagnostic method, Dr. Nitika Pant Pai, from Marina Klein's research team at the MUHC has just finished testing a new saliva-based test that gives results in approximately 20 minutes.

To overcome the barriers associated with blood collection, which is off-putting for many patients, this new test is based on oral mucosal transudate (OMT), a fluid that is secreted at the base of the gums before it becomes saliva. In fact, the level of antibodies in OMT is comparable to that of blood plasma, making it an excellent sample.

To test this innovative technique under real world conditions, especially in vulnerable pregnant women, Dr. Pant Pai carried out clinical trials in the labor ward of the Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram, Maharastra, India. "In such cases, it is vital to determine the HIV status of the mother very quickly to prevent transmission to the child during delivery. Many Indian women do not receive prenatal care and therefore do not get tested for HIV during pregnancy. Testing in the labor ward is the last chance to prevent HIV transmission to the newborn baby. Also Indian patients often refuse blood collection, while saliva collection poses no problem," explained Dr. Pant Pai.

This is the kind of situation when this innovative test reveals all its potential. In the study, 1222 mothers were tested for HIV in the labor ward using both saliva and blood samples. The results from both kinds of tests corresponded in 100 percent of cases. In addition, use of the saliva test in the labor ward helped identified several HIV infected women who were unaware of the HIV status. These women received treatments to reduce the chance of HIV infection in the newborn babies. This is an incredible piece of evidence for the accuracy and ease of execution of this new oral test.

The underlying method, called immunochromatography, is the same as for pregnancy tests. This technique aggregates the antibodies contained in the sample of oral mucosal transudate with the antigens (molecules recognized as enemy by the immune system) contained in the test. The OMT is simply collected on a stick, which is also similar to the one used in a pregnancy test, and then placed in a small tube containing a special solution. Between 20 and 40 minutes later a purple line will appear at the top of the stick if the result is positive.

"Rapid saliva tests are not in use yet in Canada, as they are met here with a lot of skepticism," Dr. Pant Pai acknowledged. "However, their efficacy has now been demonstrated for all subtypes of HIV-1 and HIV-2." These tests could become highly useful for vulnerable or at-risk people who are not always given adequate medical follow-up. A rapid, low-cost test would therefore reduce the number of patients who are unaware of their HIV status.

Long-term, this research will hopefully pave the way to a more widespread use of rapid oral fluid HIV tests to prevent mother to child transmission of the HIV virus. It may also pave the way for an over-the-counter test for home use.

This study was supported in part by the Canadian HIV Trials Network (CTN).

Dr Nitika Pant Pai is a CTN post doctoral fellow at the Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunodeficiency Service at the MUHC.

Dr Pai wants to thank Dr Marina Klein(MUHC, Montreal), and Dr Madhukar Pai (McGill University, MUHC, Montreal) for their support and guidance. She also thanks Dr S. Chabbra, Dr Ritu Barick, Dr SP Kalantri, and Dr Poonam Shivkumar (MGIMS, India) Dr Jackie Tulsky and Dr Deborah Cohan (UCSF, San Francisco),for their support in the conduct of the study. Most of all, this study would not have been possible without the efforts of the study counselors who worked round the clock to provide testing and counseling to pregnant women. Dr Pant Pai dedicates this study to the rural women who face insurmountable challenges in their lives and in their battle against HIV/AIDS.

The Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre (RI MUHC) is a world-renowned biomedical and health-care hospital research centre. Located in Montreal, Quebec, the institute is the research arm of the MUHC, the university health center affiliated with the Faculty of Medicine at McGill University. The institute supports over 600 researchers, nearly 1200 graduate and post-doctoral students and operates more than 300 laboratories devoted to a broad spectrum of fundamental and clinical research. The Research Institute operates at the forefront of knowledge, innovation and technology and is inextricably linked to the clinical programs of the MUHC, ensuring that patients benefit directly from the latest research-based knowledge.

The Research Institute of the MUHC is supported in part by the Fonds de la recherche e

Journal reference: Pai NP, Barick R, Tulsky JP, Shivkumar PV, Cohan D, et al. (2008) Impact of round-the-clock, rapid oral fluid HIV testing of women in labor in rural India. PLoS Med 5(5): e92.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by McGill University Health Centre. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

McGill University Health Centre. "New Saliva-based HIV Test May Speed Up Detection." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 6 May 2008. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/05/080505211812.htm>.
McGill University Health Centre. (2008, May 6). New Saliva-based HIV Test May Speed Up Detection. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 1, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/05/080505211812.htm
McGill University Health Centre. "New Saliva-based HIV Test May Speed Up Detection." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/05/080505211812.htm (accessed September 1, 2014).

Share This




More Health & Medicine News

Monday, September 1, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Get on Your Bike! London Cycling Popularity Soars Despite Danger

Get on Your Bike! London Cycling Popularity Soars Despite Danger

AFP (Sep. 1, 2014) Wedged between buses, lorries and cars, cycling in London isn't for the faint hearted. Nevertheless the number of people choosing to bike in the British capital has doubled over the past 15 years. Duration: 02:27 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
We've Got Mites Living In Our Faces And So Do You

We've Got Mites Living In Our Faces And So Do You

Newsy (Aug. 30, 2014) A new study suggests 100 percent of adult humans (those over 18 years of age) have Demodex mites living in their faces. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Liberia Continues Fight Against Ebola

Liberia Continues Fight Against Ebola

AFP (Aug. 30, 2014) Authorities in Liberia try to stem the spread of the Ebola epidemic by raising awareness and setting up sanitation units for people to wash their hands. Duration: 00:41 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
California Passes 'yes-Means-Yes' Campus Sexual Assault Bill

California Passes 'yes-Means-Yes' Campus Sexual Assault Bill

Reuters - US Online Video (Aug. 30, 2014) California lawmakers pass a bill requiring universities to adopt "affirmative consent" language in their definitions of consensual sex, part of a nationwide drive to curb sexual assault on campuses. Linda So reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins