Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Novel Ways To Boost Vaccination Or Natural Defenses

Date:
July 9, 2008
Source:
Garvan Institute of Medical Research
Summary:
Our bodies rely on the production of potent, or 'high affinity,' antibodies to fight infection. The process is very complex, yet scientists have discovered that it hinges on a single molecule, a growth factor, without which it cannot function.

T follicular helper cells generate germinal centre formation.
Credit: Image courtesy of Garvan Institute of Medical Research

Our bodies rely on the production of potent, or 'high affinity', antibodies to fight infection. The process is very complex, yet Sydney scientists have discovered that it hinges on a single molecule, a growth factor, without which it cannot function.

Related Articles


There is much we do not yet understand about our immune system. In simple terms, our bodies produce B cells, which make antibodies, and T cells, which help them. Ways in which these cells operate and interact with each other are still coming to light.

Roughly eight years ago, a new subset of T cells, T follicular helper (TFH) cells, was identified. This important class of T cells operates in specific environments termed 'germinal centres', specialised areas within lymph organs where B cells proliferate to form high affinity antibodies whenever we fight infection. TFH cells play a critical role in that they communicate with, and help activate, B cells.

The novel finding made by Dr Cecile King and PhD student Alexis Vogelzang, from the Garvan Institute of Medical Research in Sydney, was that the molecule interleukin 21 (IL-21) is a growth factor for TFH cells. A paper detailing this finding was published online recently in the international journal Immunity.

A cytokine, or chemical messenger, IL-21 is already well known to immunologists. While its newly identified growth factor role is only one of several functions, that function is fundamental. Without IL-21, the all-important TFH cells could neither develop nor survive.

Dr Cecile King, head of the Mucosal Autoimmunity Group at Garvan, has been investigating the roles of IL-21 for several years. "We already knew that IL-21 was produced by TFH cells and that it was a major initiator of proliferation in B cells," she said. "We were surprised to find that TFH cells not only produce IL-21, they also absolutely need it to survive and they utilise it to function."

"We showed that if you take a mouse genetically deficient in IL-21 and immunise it, you don't get TFH cells and you don't get antibody production. Conversely, if you put IL-21 receptor sufficient, or normal, T cells into the same mouse, where of course the B cells remain abnormal, you recover the normal immune reaction."

"These specialised T cells are thought to be the ones that direct traffic. They are the only ones that can move into the B cell zone and initiate high affinity antibody production."

"Without IL-21, we probably wouldn't be completely immunodeficient, just severely compromised. In addition to the high affinity antibodies we're talking about, our bodies also produce a lot of low affinity antibodies for mopping up infection. That low level response happens around-the-clock and is one of our body's first lines of defence."

"You could say that IL-21 directs the most finely-tuned aspect of our immune response. The highly specialised weaponry developed on-the-spot to target aggressive invaders."

"This finding suggests novel ways to boost vaccination or natural defences."


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Garvan Institute of Medical Research. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

Garvan Institute of Medical Research. "Novel Ways To Boost Vaccination Or Natural Defenses." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 9 July 2008. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/07/080707093405.htm>.
Garvan Institute of Medical Research. (2008, July 9). Novel Ways To Boost Vaccination Or Natural Defenses. ScienceDaily. Retrieved April 20, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/07/080707093405.htm
Garvan Institute of Medical Research. "Novel Ways To Boost Vaccination Or Natural Defenses." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/07/080707093405.htm (accessed April 20, 2015).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Health & Medicine News

Monday, April 20, 2015

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Humanoid Robot Can Recognise and Interact With People

Humanoid Robot Can Recognise and Interact With People

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Apr. 20, 2015) An ultra-realistic humanoid robot called &apos;Han&apos; recognises and interprets people&apos;s facial expressions and can even hold simple conversations. Developers Hanson Robotics hope androids like Han could have uses in hospitality and health care industries where face-to-face communication is vital. Matthew Stock reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Labour Party Warns Britain's Health Service 'on Life Support'

Labour Party Warns Britain's Health Service 'on Life Support'

AFP (Apr. 20, 2015) Britain&apos;s opposition Labour Party Monday claimed the National Health Service (NHS) was &apos;on life support&apos; as it turned its attention to the state-run service, which is a key issue for the UK&apos;s May 7 general election. Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Sierra Leone Students Back to School After Long Ebola Closure

Sierra Leone Students Back to School After Long Ebola Closure

Reuters - News Video Online (Apr. 20, 2015) After an eight-month break, children in Sierra Leone return to school for the first time since the beginning of the Ebola outbreak. Nathan Frandino reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Teen E-Cigarette Use Triples, Government Debates Regulations

Teen E-Cigarette Use Triples, Government Debates Regulations

Newsy (Apr. 19, 2015) The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says in 2014, 13.4 percent of high school students reported smoking an e-cigarette within 30 days. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins