Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Link Between Type 1 Diabetes And Common Viral Infection Suggested By Genetic Mutations

Date:
March 6, 2009
Source:
University of Cambridge
Summary:
Scientists have discovered four rare mutations of a gene associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D) that reduce the risk of developing the disease. Their findings, published in the journal Science, suggest a link between T1D and the enterovirus (a common virus that enters via the gastrointestinal tract but is often non-symptomatic).

Scientists from Cambridge University have discovered four rare mutations of a gene associated with type 1 diabetes (T1D) that reduce the risk of developing the disease. Their findings, published March 5 in the journal Science Express, suggest a link between T1D and the enterovirus (a common virus that enters via the gastrointestinal tract but is often non-symptomatic).

Related Articles


Everyone carries the IFIH1 gene, which plays a role in the body's antiviral responses. Importantly, it is also located in the region of the human genome associated with T1D, an autoimmune disorder which results in the body attacking its own insulin-producing pancreatic cells. The IFIH1 gene codes for a protein that recognizes the presence of viruses in the cell and controls immune activation. It is within this gene that scientists have identified four gene variants that protect against T1D.

Enteroviruses are well known to be associated with T1D: enterovirus infections are more common among newly diagnosed T1D patients and pre-diabetic subjects than in the general population and often precede the appearance of biological markers for pre-diabetes. However, no one knows if these infections are a cause of type 1 diabetes.

The study, which was conducted at the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation/Wellcome Trust Diabetes and Inflammation Laboratory, establishes that the IFIH1 protein is involved in T1D, highlighting a molecular pathway by which enterovirus infections may contribute to the development of the disease. The four rare variants they identified, which are predicted to reduce function of the IFIH1 protein, consistently decrease the risk of T1D, rather than predispose to it. This suggests a model where normal immune activation caused by enterovirus infection and mediated by IFIH1 protein stimulates autoimmunity that eventually leads to T1D.

Professor John Todd, senior author on the study, said: "We have been able to pin-point one particular gene among a long list of candidates. Now we and others can begin to study the biology of IFIH1 in the context of type 1 diabetes knowing that it is part of the cause of the disease."

In the past three years genome-wide association studies have been a major success, revealing dozens of regions in the human genome that harbour genes which predispose individuals to various diseases, such as diabetes or cancers. Nevertheless, as disease-associated regions may contain several genes with different functions, scientists rarely know which gene or gene variant (mutations of the gene) in these regions cause the disease.

In order to overcome this limitation, the scientists searched for variants that had obvious biological effects, e.g. those affecting gene expression or protein function. They hypothesized that if a gene harbors several such variants, then it is likely to be causative. Most of such variants are rare in the population and are not tested in genome-wide association studies. Nevertheless, they could be discovered by sequencing (examining the sequence of the pairs of nucleotides which make up a gene).

The researchers studied 10 candidate genes associated with T1D. Using a novel technique (high throughput sequencing of DNA pools) in collaboration with 454 Life Sciences, a Roche company, they examined the DNA of 480 T1D patients and 480 healthy controls. This approach allowed them to not only discover several rare variants associated with T1D, but also to accurately measure their frequency in the pools of patients and controls.

The researchers then genotyped approximately 30,000 individuals who were either T1D patients, controls or family members and proved that four rare variants or versions that reside in the gene IFIH1 reduce the risk of developing T1D.

The study demonstrates that re-sequencing genes associated with diseases can help pinpoint the specific gene or genes that lead to the disease.

"Finding several new rare disease variants with clear biological functions was crucial. Not only has this proved that IFIH1 is involved in type 1 diabetes, it also gave us clues to understand the mechanism" said Dr. Sergey Nejentsev, Royal Society Research Fellow at the Department of Medicine, the first author of the study. He added: "This experiment shows the way to identify causative genes contributing to various common diseases."


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by University of Cambridge. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Nejentsev et al. Rare Variants of IFIH1, a Gene Implicated in Antiviral Responses, Protect Against Type 1 Diabetes. Science, March 6, 2009

Cite This Page:

University of Cambridge. "Link Between Type 1 Diabetes And Common Viral Infection Suggested By Genetic Mutations." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 6 March 2009. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/03/090305141635.htm>.
University of Cambridge. (2009, March 6). Link Between Type 1 Diabetes And Common Viral Infection Suggested By Genetic Mutations. ScienceDaily. Retrieved November 27, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/03/090305141635.htm
University of Cambridge. "Link Between Type 1 Diabetes And Common Viral Infection Suggested By Genetic Mutations." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/03/090305141635.htm (accessed November 27, 2014).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Health & Medicine News

Thursday, November 27, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Ebola Leaves Orphans Alone in Sierra Leone

Ebola Leaves Orphans Alone in Sierra Leone

AFP (Nov. 27, 2014) — The Ebola epidemic sweeping Sierra Leone is having a profound effect on the country's children, many of whom have been left without any family members to support them. Duration: 01:02 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Experimental Ebola Vaccine Shows Promise In Human Trial

Experimental Ebola Vaccine Shows Promise In Human Trial

Newsy (Nov. 27, 2014) — A recent test of a prototype Ebola vaccine generated an immune response to the disease in subjects. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Pet Dogs to Be Used in Anti-Ageing Trial

Pet Dogs to Be Used in Anti-Ageing Trial

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Nov. 26, 2014) — Researchers in the United States are preparing to discover whether a drug commonly used in human organ transplants can extend the lifespan and health quality of pet dogs. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Today's Prostheses Are More Capable Than Ever

Today's Prostheses Are More Capable Than Ever

Newsy (Nov. 26, 2014) — Advances in prosthetics are making replacement body parts stronger and more lifelike than they’ve ever been. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
 
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:  

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories

 

Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:  

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile iPhone Android Web
Follow Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins