Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Pneumococcal Vaccine Reduces Child Deaths In Developing Countries

Date:
June 24, 2009
Source:
Academy of Finland
Summary:
A new trial has found that pneumococcal vaccine is effective in preventing severe pneumonia, the leading cause of death among children in developing countries. The large scale efficacy trial – first of its kind in Asia - was carried out in the Philippines to investigate the effect of an investigational pneumococcal vaccine.

A new trial has found that pneumococcal vaccine is effective in preventing severe pneumonia, the leading cause of death among children in developing countries. Co-ordinated by the National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL) between 2000 and 2004, a large scale efficacy trial – first of its kind in Asia - was carried out in the Philippines to investigate the effect of an investigational pneumococcal vaccine.

A total of 12 190 children aged between six weeks and six months participated in the ARIVAC vaccine trial. The results showed that there was a 23 percent reduction in X-ray-confirmed pneumonia among children under two years of age who received the pneumococcal vaccine. However, the vaccine did not reduce clinically diagnosed pneumonia.

The children were given three doses of either a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine or placebo. At the same time, they were also given vaccines included in the Filipino national vaccination programme as well as a Hib vaccine. A subset of approximately thousand children was studied separately to analyse the ability of the vaccine to induce antibodies and prevent nasopharyngeal carriage of pneumococcus. The pneumococcal vaccine was highly effective in producing antibodies and proved to be a safe vaccine overall.

The results of this ARIVAC trial can be put to good use in pneumococcal vaccine development and in assessing the burden of disease of pneumococcal infections among children. The results can also provide robust support to decision-makers at a national level, especially in Asia. Despite the efficacy of the vaccine, price is still a big hurdle to overcome: for resource-poor countries that do not receive international financial aid, it may take several years if not decades before they can add the vaccine to the national vaccination programme.

Infections caused by the pneumococcus (Streptococcus pneumoniae) bacterium are the major causes of child mortality worldwide. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates that more than a million children die from pneumococcal meningitis and pneumonia every year. Furthermore, pneumococci cause a far greater number of minor respiratory tract infections. Severe infections can cause children to be at high risk for permanent hearing impairment, which in turn may lead to delays in development and learning difficulties. In the Philippines, pneumonia is the leading cause of severe morbidity and mortality among children under five years of age.

The ARIVAC vaccine trial in the Philippines received financial support from a number of sources, including the Academy of Finland, the Department of Development Co-operation of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, the Finnish association of Physicians for Social Responsibility, the EU Directorate-General for Research, the US non-profit organisation PATH, and the WHO.

The trial was a joint venture of the international ARIVAC consortium, which consists of THL (Finland), the Research Institute for Tropical Medicine (the Philippines), the University of Queensland (Australia), the University of Colorado Denver (USA), and Sanofi Pasteur (France), the vaccines division of the sanofi-aventis Group.

According to Academy Research Fellow Hanna Nohynek at THL, one of the merits of the vaccine trial was the extent to which it fused together international research and development co-operation. “The pooling of funds from several different sources successfully ensured both the scientific quality of the research and the supply of local know-how and knowledge, in accordance with the principles of sustainable development,” Nohynek said.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Academy of Finland. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal References:

  1. Lucero MG, Nohynek H, Williams G et al. Efficacy of an 11-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against radiologically confirmed pneumonia among children less than two years of age in the Philippines: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, Volume 28, Number 6, June 2009: 455-462
  2. Katherine L. O%u2019Brien. Pneumococcal Vaccine and the Dance of the Veils Revealing Pneumonia Burden in Asia. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, Volume 28, Number 6, June 200: 464-465

Cite This Page:

Academy of Finland. "Pneumococcal Vaccine Reduces Child Deaths In Developing Countries." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 24 June 2009. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/06/090616080149.htm>.
Academy of Finland. (2009, June 24). Pneumococcal Vaccine Reduces Child Deaths In Developing Countries. ScienceDaily. Retrieved September 2, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/06/090616080149.htm
Academy of Finland. "Pneumococcal Vaccine Reduces Child Deaths In Developing Countries." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/06/090616080149.htm (accessed September 2, 2014).

Share This




More Health & Medicine News

Tuesday, September 2, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Snack Attack: Study Says Action Movies Make You Snack More

Snack Attack: Study Says Action Movies Make You Snack More

Newsy (Sep. 2, 2014) You're more likely to gain weight while watching action flicks than you are watching other types of programming, says a new study published in JAMA. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
U.N. Says Ebola Travel Restrictions Will Cause Food Shortage

U.N. Says Ebola Travel Restrictions Will Cause Food Shortage

Newsy (Sep. 2, 2014) The U.N. says the problem is two-fold — quarantine zones and travel restrictions are limiting the movement of both people and food. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Doctors Fear They're Losing Battle Against Ebola

Doctors Fear They're Losing Battle Against Ebola

AP (Sep. 2, 2014) As a third American missionary is confirmed to have contracted Ebola in Liberia, doctors on the ground in West Africa fear they're losing the battle against the outbreak. (Sept. 2) Video provided by AP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Tech Giants Bet on 3D Headsets for Gaming, Healthcare

Tech Giants Bet on 3D Headsets for Gaming, Healthcare

AFP (Sep. 2, 2014) When Facebook acquired the virtual reality hardware developer Oculus VR in March for $2 billion, CEO Mark Zuckerberg hailed the firm's technology as "a new communication platform." Duration: 02:24 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins