Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Colorectal Cancer Risk Increased By Single-base Change In The Human Genome

Date:
July 8, 2009
Source:
Academy of Finland
Summary:
A single-base change in the human genome increases the risk of colorectal cancer.

Finnish Academy Professors Lauri Aaltonen and Jussi Taipale have identified and described a mechanism whereby a single-base change in the human genome increases the risk of colorectal cancer.

Related Articles


The focus in this study was on a common single-base variant occurring in chromosome 8, which in itself causes only a slightly increased risk of cancer. However, the risk allele is carried by 75% of people of European origin and by almost 100% of African populations.

The high frequency of the gene variant makes it a very common cause of cancer at the population level. At the individual level, however, the variant does not cause significant disease predisposition because that can often be considerably reduced by lifestyle changes. Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide and a major cause of cancer mortality.

Mutation mechanisms activate pathways regulating cancer

The variant that increases the risk of colorectal cancer was found to be located in a regulatory region, where it changes the function of a key regulatory element important for the development of colorectal cancer. The scientists showed that the risk allele strengthens the binding of a regulatory factor in cancer cells, which activates pathways that are central to the development of cancer. The impacts of this altered genetic regulation on cell division are probably mediated via the MYC cancer gene, which is one of the best known accelerator genes in cancer.

Single-base changes are the most common type of variation found in the human genome. Genome-wide studies of interindividual differences in common variants can be studied using DNA chip technology, which has greatly facilitated efforts to understand the genetic basis of multifactorial diseases. To date, scientists have identified more than 400 variants in the human genome that are associated with an increased risk of common diseases, such as cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

Multidisciplinary research

The findings of this research lend support to the theory that human disease susceptibility is explained in part by differences in regulatory regions of the genome, and in gene expression. A closer understanding of the biological mechanisms involved will help to clarify the aetiology of colorectal cancer and pave the way to more effective cancer prevention. Apart from hereditary tumor predisposition, another area of major strength for Finnish research is gene regulation. It was hardly surprising therefore that Aaltonen's and Taipale's research teams found each other so easily. The research project supervised by Aaltonen and Taipale involved molecular biologists, medical doctors and data processing researchers from Finland and the UK. For instance, the project made use of the EEL software developed by Professor Esko Ukkonen and his team at the CoE for Algorithmic Data Analysis.

The research was funded by the Academy of Finland, the European Union, the Sigrid Juselius Foundation and the Cancer Foundation.

The results of the study will be published in the journal Nature Genetics. DOI 10.1038/ng.406


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Academy of Finland. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

Academy of Finland. "Colorectal Cancer Risk Increased By Single-base Change In The Human Genome." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 8 July 2009. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/06/090629112631.htm>.
Academy of Finland. (2009, July 8). Colorectal Cancer Risk Increased By Single-base Change In The Human Genome. ScienceDaily. Retrieved November 24, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/06/090629112631.htm
Academy of Finland. "Colorectal Cancer Risk Increased By Single-base Change In The Human Genome." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/06/090629112631.htm (accessed November 24, 2014).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Health & Medicine News

Monday, November 24, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Winter Can Cause Depression — Here's How To Combat It

Winter Can Cause Depression — Here's How To Combat It

Newsy (Nov. 23, 2014) Millions of American suffer from seasonal depression every year. It can lead to adverse health effects, but there are ways to ease symptoms. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Ebola-Hit Sierra Leone's Late Cocoa Leaves Bitter Taste

Ebola-Hit Sierra Leone's Late Cocoa Leaves Bitter Taste

AFP (Nov. 23, 2014) The arable district of Kenema in Sierra Leone -- at the centre of the Ebola outbreak in May -- has been under quarantine for three months as the cocoa harvest comes in. Duration: 01:32 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com
Don't Fall For Flu Shot Myths

Don't Fall For Flu Shot Myths

Newsy (Nov. 23, 2014) Misconceptions abound when it comes to your annual flu shot. Medical experts say most people older than 6 months should get the shot. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
WFP: Ebola Risks Heightened Among Women Throughout Africa

WFP: Ebola Risks Heightened Among Women Throughout Africa

AFP (Nov. 21, 2014) Having children has always been a frightening prospect in Sierra Leone, the world's most dangerous place to give birth, but Ebola has presented an alarming new threat for expectant mothers. Duration: 00:37 Video provided by AFP
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins