Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Colorectal Cancer Risk Increased By Single-base Change In The Human Genome

Date:
July 8, 2009
Source:
Academy of Finland
Summary:
A single-base change in the human genome increases the risk of colorectal cancer.

Finnish Academy Professors Lauri Aaltonen and Jussi Taipale have identified and described a mechanism whereby a single-base change in the human genome increases the risk of colorectal cancer.

Related Articles


The focus in this study was on a common single-base variant occurring in chromosome 8, which in itself causes only a slightly increased risk of cancer. However, the risk allele is carried by 75% of people of European origin and by almost 100% of African populations.

The high frequency of the gene variant makes it a very common cause of cancer at the population level. At the individual level, however, the variant does not cause significant disease predisposition because that can often be considerably reduced by lifestyle changes. Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide and a major cause of cancer mortality.

Mutation mechanisms activate pathways regulating cancer

The variant that increases the risk of colorectal cancer was found to be located in a regulatory region, where it changes the function of a key regulatory element important for the development of colorectal cancer. The scientists showed that the risk allele strengthens the binding of a regulatory factor in cancer cells, which activates pathways that are central to the development of cancer. The impacts of this altered genetic regulation on cell division are probably mediated via the MYC cancer gene, which is one of the best known accelerator genes in cancer.

Single-base changes are the most common type of variation found in the human genome. Genome-wide studies of interindividual differences in common variants can be studied using DNA chip technology, which has greatly facilitated efforts to understand the genetic basis of multifactorial diseases. To date, scientists have identified more than 400 variants in the human genome that are associated with an increased risk of common diseases, such as cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

Multidisciplinary research

The findings of this research lend support to the theory that human disease susceptibility is explained in part by differences in regulatory regions of the genome, and in gene expression. A closer understanding of the biological mechanisms involved will help to clarify the aetiology of colorectal cancer and pave the way to more effective cancer prevention. Apart from hereditary tumor predisposition, another area of major strength for Finnish research is gene regulation. It was hardly surprising therefore that Aaltonen's and Taipale's research teams found each other so easily. The research project supervised by Aaltonen and Taipale involved molecular biologists, medical doctors and data processing researchers from Finland and the UK. For instance, the project made use of the EEL software developed by Professor Esko Ukkonen and his team at the CoE for Algorithmic Data Analysis.

The research was funded by the Academy of Finland, the European Union, the Sigrid Juselius Foundation and the Cancer Foundation.

The results of the study will be published in the journal Nature Genetics. DOI 10.1038/ng.406


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by Academy of Finland. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Cite This Page:

Academy of Finland. "Colorectal Cancer Risk Increased By Single-base Change In The Human Genome." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 8 July 2009. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/06/090629112631.htm>.
Academy of Finland. (2009, July 8). Colorectal Cancer Risk Increased By Single-base Change In The Human Genome. ScienceDaily. Retrieved March 1, 2015 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/06/090629112631.htm
Academy of Finland. "Colorectal Cancer Risk Increased By Single-base Change In The Human Genome." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/06/090629112631.htm (accessed March 1, 2015).

Share This


More From ScienceDaily



More Health & Medicine News

Sunday, March 1, 2015

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Rehab Robot Helps Restore Damaged Muscles and Nerves

Rehab Robot Helps Restore Damaged Muscles and Nerves

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Mar. 1, 2015) A rehabilitation robot prototype to help restore deteriorated nerves and muscles using electromyography and computer games. Ben Gruber reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Could a $34 Smartphone Device Improve HIV Diagnosis in Africa?

Could a $34 Smartphone Device Improve HIV Diagnosis in Africa?

Reuters - Innovations Video Online (Feb. 27, 2015) A dongle that plugs into a Smartphone mimics a lab-based blood test for HIV and syphilis and can detect the diseases in 15 minutes, say researchers. Tara Cleary reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Doctor Says Head Transplants Possible Within Two Years

Doctor Says Head Transplants Possible Within Two Years

Buzz60 (Feb. 27, 2015) An Italian doctor is saying he could stick someone&apos;s head onto someone else&apos;s body. Patrick Jones (@Patrick_E_Jones) reports. Video provided by Buzz60
Powered by NewsLook.com
How Your Dentist Could Help Screen You For Diabetes

How Your Dentist Could Help Screen You For Diabetes

Newsy (Feb. 27, 2015) A new study from researchers at New York University suggests dentists could soon use blood samples taken from patients&apos; mouths to test for diabetes. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:

Strange & Offbeat Stories


Health & Medicine

Mind & Brain

Living & Well

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins