Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations

Cancer Genome Atlas identifies distinct subtypes of deadly brain cancer

Date:
January 19, 2010
Source:
NIH/National Human Genome Research Institute
Summary:
The most common form of malignant brain cancer in adults, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is not a single disease but appears to be four distinct molecular subtypes, according to a study by the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network.

The most common form of malignant brain cancer in adults, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), is not a single disease but appears to be four distinct molecular subtypes, according to a study by the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network.

The researchers of this study also found that response to aggressive chemotherapy and radiation differed by subtype. Patients with one subtype treated with this strategy appeared to succumb to their disease at a rate approximately 50 percent slower than patients treated with less aggressive therapy. This effect was seen to a lesser degree in two of the subtypes and not at all in the fourth subtype.

Although the findings do not affect current clinical practice, the researchers said the results may lead to more personalized approaches to treating groups of GBM patients based on their genomic alterations. The study, published Jan. 19, 2010 in Cancer Cell, provides a solid framework for investigation of targeted therapies that may improve the near uniformly fatal prognosis of this cancer. The research team for TCGA is a collaborative effort funded by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), both parts of the National Institutes of Health.

"TCGA is mobilizing the entire cancer community to find new strategies in detecting and treating cancer faster," said NIH Director Francis Collins, M.D., Ph.D. "These findings are just a hint of what we expect to result from the comprehensive data generated by TCGA over the next few years." GBM is a very fast-growing type of tumor. In recent years, three of every 100,000 Americans have been diagnosed with GBM, representing the highest incidence rate among malignant brain tumors. Most patients with GBM die of the disease within approximately 14 months of diagnosis.

"These new findings offer critical insights into stratifying patients based on the unique molecular characteristics of their disease," said John E. Niederhuber, M.D., NCI director. "As we learn more and more about the genetic underpinnings of cancer, we hope to achieve a similar level of molecular understanding for all cancers and eventually to generate recipes of highly targeted therapies uniquely suited to the individual patient."

The TCGA researchers expanded on previous studies, which had established gene expression profiling as a means to identify distinct subgroups of GBM.

"We discovered a bundle of events that unequivocally occur almost exclusively within a subtype," said lead author D. Neil Hayes, M.D., University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. "These are critical events in the history of the tumor's development and spread, and evidence is increasing that they may relate to the initial formation of the tumors."

TCGA researchers reported that the nature of these events indicate that the underlying pathology of each subtype may begin from different types of cells. This may provide a better understanding of which cell types undergo changes that ultimately drive initial cancer formation. This finding has potential clinical significance since determining the types of cells that form GBM is critical for establishing effective treatment regimens. Because the response to aggressive chemotherapy and radiation differed by subtype, some classes of drugs would be expected to work for some tumor subtypes and not others.

"The ability to differentiate GBM tumors based on their altered genetic code lays the groundwork for more effective treatment strategies to combat this deadly cancer," said Eric D. Green, M.D., Ph.D., NHGRI director. "These findings demonstrate the power of using a cancer's genome to unravel the molecular changes that occur in the various cancer types targeted by TCGA. I'm optimistic that this type of knowledge will someday lead to improved personalized therapies and care for cancer patients."

The new findings build on TCGA's detailed view of GBM genomic changes reported in Nature in October 2008. TCGA, launched in 2006, is a comprehensive and coordinated effort to accelerate understanding of the molecular basis of cancer through the application of genome analysis technologies, including large-scale genome sequencing.

TCGA data are being made rapidly available to the research community through a database, http://cancergenome.nih.gov/dataportal. The database provides direct access to most analytic datasets, with other data, such as patient treatment records, available to qualified researchers through an NIH review and approval process.

The TCGA Research Network consists of more than 150 researchers at dozens of institutions across the nation. A full list of participants is available at http://cancergenome.nih.gov/wwd/program.

More details about The Cancer Genome Atlas, including Quick Facts, Q&A, graphics, glossary, a brief guide to genomics and a media library of available images can be found at http://cancergenome.nih.gov.


Story Source:

The above story is based on materials provided by NIH/National Human Genome Research Institute. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Verhaak RGW, Hoadley KA, et al. Integrated Genomic Analysis Identifies Clinically Relevant Subtypes of Glioblastoma Characterized by Abnormalities in PDGFRA, IDH1, EGFR, and NF1. Cancer Cell, Jan 19, 2010 DOI: 10.1016/j.ccr.2010.12.020.

Cite This Page:

NIH/National Human Genome Research Institute. "Cancer Genome Atlas identifies distinct subtypes of deadly brain cancer." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 19 January 2010. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/01/100119121213.htm>.
NIH/National Human Genome Research Institute. (2010, January 19). Cancer Genome Atlas identifies distinct subtypes of deadly brain cancer. ScienceDaily. Retrieved July 30, 2014 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/01/100119121213.htm
NIH/National Human Genome Research Institute. "Cancer Genome Atlas identifies distinct subtypes of deadly brain cancer." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/01/100119121213.htm (accessed July 30, 2014).

Share This




More Health & Medicine News

Wednesday, July 30, 2014

Featured Research

from universities, journals, and other organizations


Featured Videos

from AP, Reuters, AFP, and other news services

Generics Eat Into Pfizer's Sales

Generics Eat Into Pfizer's Sales

Reuters - Business Video Online (July 29, 2014) Pfizer, the world's largest drug maker, cut full-year revenue forecasts because generics could cut into sales of its anti-arthritis drug, Celebrex. Fred Katayama reports. Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Nigeria Ups Ebola Stakes on 1st Death

Nigeria Ups Ebola Stakes on 1st Death

Reuters - Business Video Online (July 29, 2014) Nigerian authorities have shut and quarantined a Lagos hospital where a Liberian man died of the Ebola virus, the first recorded case of the highly-infectious disease in Africa's most populous economy. David Pollard reports Video provided by Reuters
Powered by NewsLook.com
Running 5 Minutes A Day Might Add Years To Your Life

Running 5 Minutes A Day Might Add Years To Your Life

Newsy (July 29, 2014) According to a new study, just five minutes of running or jogging a day could add years to your life. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com
Ebola Outbreak Poses Little Threat To U.S.: CDC

Ebola Outbreak Poses Little Threat To U.S.: CDC

Newsy (July 29, 2014) The Ebola outbreak in West Africa poses little threat to Americans, according to officials with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Video provided by Newsy
Powered by NewsLook.com

Search ScienceDaily

Number of stories in archives: 140,361

Find with keyword(s):
Enter a keyword or phrase to search ScienceDaily for related topics and research stories.

Save/Print:
Share:

Breaking News:
from the past week

In Other News

... from NewsDaily.com

Science News

Health News

Environment News

Technology News



Save/Print:
Share:

Free Subscriptions


Get the latest science news with ScienceDaily's free email newsletters, updated daily and weekly. Or view hourly updated newsfeeds in your RSS reader:

Get Social & Mobile


Keep up to date with the latest news from ScienceDaily via social networks and mobile apps:

Have Feedback?


Tell us what you think of ScienceDaily -- we welcome both positive and negative comments. Have any problems using the site? Questions?
Mobile: iPhone Android Web
Follow: Facebook Twitter Google+
Subscribe: RSS Feeds Email Newsletters
Latest Headlines Health & Medicine Mind & Brain Space & Time Matter & Energy Computers & Math Plants & Animals Earth & Climate Fossils & Ruins